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When Tinguely met Rauschenberg – SWI swissinfo.ch
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Money Thrower, the start of his friendship with Tinguely
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And with billy kluver
When Robert Rauschenberg met Jean Tinguely | Art | Agenda | Phaidon
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Rauschenberg and Billy Klüver working on Oracle 1965
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Billy Klüver and Robert Rauschenberg, 1966 Yale Joel/The LIFE Picture Collection/Getty Images
Billy Kluver | Database of Digital Art
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Billy Kluver and Robert Rauschenberg
Experiments in Art and Technology was founded in 1966 by engineers Billy Klüver and Fred Waldhauer and artists Robert Rauschenberg and Robert Whitman. The non-profit organization developed from the experience of 9 Evenings: Theatre and Engineering. This event, which was held in October 1966 at the 69th Regiment Armory in New York City (U.S.), brought together 40 engineers and 10 contemporary artists who worked together on performances that incorporated new technology. It became clear that achieving ongoing artist-engineer relationships would require a concerted effort to develop the necessary physical and social conditions. E.A.T. saw itself as a catalyst for stimulating the involvement of industry and technology with the arts. The organization worked to forge effective collaborations between artists and engineers through industrial cooperation and sponsorship. Membership was opened to all artists and engineers, and an office set up in a loft at 9 East 16th Street in New York.
Artists and the art community responded enthusiastically to E.A.T. By 1969, given early efforts to attract engineers, the group had over 2,000 artist members as well as 2,000 engineer members willing to work with artists. Expressions of interest and requests for technical assistance came from all over the United States and Canada and from Europe, Japan, South America and elsewhere. People were encouraged to start local E.A.T. groups and about 15 to 20 were formed.
An ongoing Technical Services Program provided artists with access to new technology by matching them with engineers or scientists for a one-to-one collaboration on the artists’ specific projects. A part of this effort was to acquaint the technical and business communities with the artists’ needs. E.A.T. was not committed to any one technology or type of equipment such as computers or holography. The organization tried to have the artist work directly with engineers in the industrial environment where the technology was being developed. Technical Services were open to all artists with no judgment made about the aesthetic value of an artist’s project or idea. In addition, efforts were taken to team up every artist with a suitable engineer or scientist.
E.A.T. also initiated interdisciplinary events and projects involving artists and new technology. These projects included: 9 Evenings: Theatre and Engineering (1966); Some More Beginning (1968), the first international exhibition of art and technology, which was held at the Brooklyn Museum; and artist-engineer collaborations to design and program the Pepsi Pavilion at Expo 70 in Osaka (Japan).
In the seventies, emerging hardware technologies used in communications, data processing, and control and command instrumentation led to a new generation of software systems that were of great interest to artists. Realizing that artists could contribute significantly to the evolution of this software, E.A.T. generated a series of projects in which artists participated in these areas of technological development. E.A.T. undertook interdisciplinary projects that extended the artists’ activities into new areas of society.
Projects realized at this time included: The Anand Project (1969), which developed methods to produce instructional programming for India’s educational television through a pilot project at Anand Dairy Cooperative in Baroda (India); Telex: Q&A (1971), which linked public spaces in New York (U.S.), Ahmadabad (India), Tokyo (Japan) and Stockholm (Sweden) by telex, allowing people from different countries to question one another about the future; Children and Communication (1972), a pilot project enabling children in different parts of New York City to converse using telephone, telex and fax equipment; a pilot program (1973) to devise methods for recording indigenous culture in El Salvador; and finally a large-screen outdoor television display system (1976-1977) for the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris.
In 1980, to detail its activities and projects, E.A.T. put together an archive of more than 300 of its own documents: reports, catalogues, newsletters, information bulletins, proposals, lectures, announcements, and reprints of major articles. A selection of newspaper and magazine articles by others has also been included. Complete sets of this archive were distributed to major libraries in New York (U.S.), Washington (U.S.), Paris (France), Stockholm (Sweden), Moscow (Russia), Ahmadabad (India) and London (England).
The archive material reflects the great geographic, technical and artistic diversity of E.A.T.’s activities. Furthermore, the collection uniquely documents a vital and important moment in the history of post-war art, as well as artists’ continuing involvement with new technology in the 20th century.
Billy Klüver © 2000 FDL
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Johan Wilhelm (Billy) Klüver (November 13, 1927 – March 20, 2004) was an electrical engineer at Bell Telephone Laboratories who founded Experiments in Art and Technology. Klüver lectured extensively on art and technology and social issues to be addressed by the technical community. He published numerous articles on these subjects. Klüver curated (or was curatorial adviser) for fourteen major museum exhibitions in the United States and Europe. He has received the prestigious Ordre des Arts et des Lettres award from the French government.
Dr. Klüver was born in Monaco, November 13, 1927, and grew up in Sweden. He graduated from the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, in Electrical Engineering. In 1952, at age 25, working for a large electronics company in France, Klüver helped install a television antenna on top of the Eiffel Tower and devised an underwater TV camera for Jacques Cousteau’s expeditions.
In 1954 he came to the United States and received a Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from the University of California, Berkeley in 1957. He served as Assistant Professor of Electrical Engineering, at the University of California, Berkeley, 1957–58 and from 1958 to 1968 he was a Member of Technical Staff at Bell Telephone Laboratories in Murray Hill. He published numerous technical and scientific papers on, among others, small signal power conservation in electron beams, backward-wave magnetron amplifiers and infra-red lasers. He holds 10 patents.
Art and technology practice
In the early 1960s, Klüver began to collaborate with artists on works of art incorporating new technology, the first being kinetic art sculptor Jean Tinguely on his Homage to New York (1960), a machine that destroyed itself that was presented in the garden at MOMA. He was introduced to Jean Tinguely by Pontus Hulten, then director of the Moderna Museet, Stockholm. Robert Rauschenberg also assisted on Homage to New York.
Klüver then worked on Robert Rauschenberg’s environmental sound sculpture called Oracle; and later with Yvonne Rainer on her dance in House of My Body. Klüver also worked with John Cage and Merce Cunningham on their Variations V, with Jasper Johns, inserting battery powered lights into a painting, and with Andy Warhol on Silver Clouds.
Klüver, Fred Waldhauer and artists Robert Rauschenberg and Robert Whitman collaborated in 1966 organized 9 Evenings: Theatre and Engineering, a series of performances that united artists and engineers. The performances were held in New York City’s 69th Regiment Armory, on Lexington Avenue between 25th and 26th Streets as an homage to the original and historical 1913 Armory show. Ten artists worked with more than 30 engineers to produce art performances incorporating new technology.
In 1967 he wrote a key theoretical text in the history of art and technology: Theater and Engineering – an Experiment: Notes by an Engineer.
Experiments in Art and Technology (E.A.T.)
In 1966 Klüver, Robert Rauschenberg, Robert Whitman, and Fred Waldhauer founded Experiments in Art and Technology, a not-for-profit service organization for artists and engineers. Since 1968 he served as president of Experiments in Art and Technology.
E.A.T. established a Technical Services Program to provide artists with technical information and assistance by matching them with engineers and scientists who can collaborate with them. In addition. E.A.T. initiates and administers interdisciplinary projects involving artists with new technology. These projects included:
The Pepsi Pavilion at Expo ’70, Osaka Japan where E.A.T. artists and engineers collaborated to design and program an immersive dome
A 1971 pilot project at Anand Dairy Cooperative, Baroda, India called “Utopia: Q&A” that consisted of public spaces linked by telex in New York, Ahmedabad, India, Tokyo, and Stockholm
A pilot program to develop methods for recording indigenous culture in El Salvador
The formation of a large screen outdoor television display system for Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris
A collaboration with artists Fujiko Nakaya (1980) and Robert Rauschenberg (1989) to design sets for the Trisha Brown Dance Company.
E.A.T. recently initiated a film restoration project to restore and edit the archival film material from 9 Evenings into ten films documenting the artists performances.
In 1972 Klüver, Barbara Rose and Julie Martin edited a book Pavilion that documented the design and construction of the Pepsi Pavilion for Expo ’70 in Osaka, Japan.
In 2001 Klüver produced an exhibition of photo and text panels entitled “The Story of E.A.T.: Experiments in Art and Technology, 1960 – 2001 by Billy Klüver.” It was first shown in Rome, then at Sonnabend Gallery in January 2002. The exhibition went to Lafayette College in the spring 2002, then to the Evolution Festival in Leeds, England, and University of Washington, in Seattle. In 2003 it traveled to San Diego State University in San Diego, California and then to a gallery in Santa Maria, California, run by Ardison Phillips who was the artist who managed the Pepsi Pavilion in 1970. From April to June 2003 a Japanese version was shown at a large exhibition at the NTT Intercommunication Center (ICC) in Tokyo which also included a number of object/artifacts and documents and E.A.T. posters, as well as works of art that Klüver and E.A.T. were involved in. A similar showing took place in Norrköping Museum of Art, Norrköping, Sweden in September 2004 and a small version was presented in 2008 at Stevens Institute of Technology.
Studies of Montparnasse
In 1978 Klüver began to work with his wife Julie Martin on a research project on the evolution of the art community in Montparnasse from 1880 to 1930. In 1989 the book Kiki’s Paris was published in the United States, and subsequently appeared in France, Germany, Sweden, Spain, and Japan. Kiki was the pseudonym of Alice Prin.
Klüver and Julie Martin have edited and annotated the original English translation of Kiki’s Memoirs’, published in 1930, but banned by U.S. Customs from the United States. It was issued by Ecco Press in Fall 1996; and in French by Editions Hazan in 1998.
Klüver’s book, A Day with Picasso, published in 1997 in the U.S. (as well as in France, Germany. Brazil), was based on a group of photographs taken at lunch on a sunny afternoon in Montparnasse in 1916 by Jean Cocteau, of Pablo Picasso and Modigliani and friends. It later was published by Hakusuisha in Japan in 1999, and in Korea and Italy in 2000.
Awards and honors
In 1974 Klüver received the Order of Vasa, from the King of Sweden. In 1998 he received an honorary doctorate in Fine Arts from Parsons School of Design of the New School for Social Research and in 2002 he was named Chevalier in the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres, by the French Government.
ART AND TECHNOLOGY, 1959–98
Rauschenberg and engineer Billy Klüver working on Oracle (1962–65) in Rauschenberg’s Broadway studio, New York, 1965. Photo: Larry Morris/The New York Times/Redux Pictures
Among the collaborative ventures that brought Rauschenberg emphatically outside the confines of his studio were his experimental works in art and technology. The artist’s interest in bringing technology into his art was already evident in some of the early Combines that integrated working appliances, such as radios, fans, electric lights, and clocks, allowing sound, motion, light, and the passage of time to quite literally be incorporated into his art.
Through his participation in the Swiss artist Jean Tinguely’s kinetic environment, Homage to New York in 1960, Rauschenberg began working with Bell Laboratories research scientist, Billy Klüver. In collaboration with Klüver, Rauschenberg realized some of his most ambitious technological works, including the sound-producing sculptural environment, Oracle (1962–65), as well as Soundings (1968), a monumental light installation responsive to ambient sound. Both works were meant to be experienced by the audience spatially and appeal to the senses beyond the purely visual.
In 1966, Rauschenberg and Klüver, together with artist Robert Whitman and engineer Fred Waldhauer, founded Experiments in Art and Technology (E.A.T.), New York, an organization that sought to make technology accessible to artists by arranging collaborations with engineers. In the same year and due to their interest in the potential application of technology for theater, they produced 9 Evenings: Theater & Engineering, an event that brought together visual artists, dancers, choreographers, scientists, and engineers, which resulted in technologically sophisticated performance works.
While Rauschenberg’s preoccupation with technology-based art reached its height during the 1960s, the artist would continue to periodically utilize technology in his art making through the 1990s. Among his later technology-based works was the series Eco-Echo (1993). Made following his attendance at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, the sonar-activated windmills referred to the artist’s environmental concerns and his interest in ecologically responsible sources of power
The collaboration between Tracey Emin and Stephen Webster
Fine artist with a romantic side Tracey Emin and fine jeweler with a celeb following Stephen Webster have created a jewelry collection made in Valentine’s Day gift heaven. Set in 18K gold, the “I Promise to Love You,” collection references Emin’s iconic neon sign works and animal sketches. Bracelets, pendants, ear cuffs, earrings and rings spell out heartbreakingly lovely sayings like the collection’s namesake piece as well as “With You I Breathe,” “More Passion,” and “Love” with a heart and a kiss in Emin’s script. Emin’s figurative woodland creatures like the hare, owl, toad and kitten have been made into yellow gold charms to be worn on a necklace chain or collected onto a charm bracelet. Webster and Emin have been friends for decades, so this natural union of art and jewelry has in a way been in the works for years. “”As Tracey pointed out on my 56th birthday, we have known each other for almost 40 years. Our first encounter was at the Atlantis Disco at the entrance of Dreamland in Margate dancing to rare groove American funk being spun by a very young Pete Tong,” Webster explains, “Some two decades later we became really great friends, always conscious of our Kent roots and Tracey’s genuine gypsy heritage.” Below, Webster speaks to Emin’s art, making it into bijoux and picking favorites.
Harper’s BAZAAR: Why is Emin’s art a good fit for your jewelry?
Stephen Webster: Tracey made a neon for my Rodeo Drive store six years ago that read “I Promise To Love You” with the slogan sitting inside a heart. Tracey said she always thought ‘that’ neon belonged in a jewelry store, where people get engaged and buy wedding rings. That is a very Tracey way of looking at things. She was of course right and it was from then on that I started to look at Tracey’s work and knew that so much of it would translate perfectly into jewellery. When I made a ring for Tracey that included two depictions of her animal sketches, we both thought how amazing they looked as hand engravings into gold.
HB: What was your approach to design around the art pieces?
SW: I worked from a few of Tracey’s drawings, that I have always loved, and began to sketch what I thought might be an amazing collection. I don’t usually get stage fright but it was a lot of work on paper, and you want a positive reading. Also we kept price in mind. This is not an elitist collection. It was important to her that it wasn’t priced just for her art collectors.
Courtesy Stephen Webster
HB: What do you love about Tracey’s art?
SW: I love her most recent large scale pieces that appear to be paintings but on close study are dramatic stitched female figures. I am also fortunate enough to own a portrait of myself that Tracey gave me in exchange for once writing her column in the Independent while she was in Australia. The piece is titled ‘David Essex or Ken Dodd’, it’s brilliant.
HB: How was it working with her given your long history?
Tracey and I have known each other for almost 40 years. She has become a really great friend, always reminiscent of our Kent roots. Tracey and I are also god parents to one of our best friend’s, Mick Jones’ two daughters.
HB: What’s your favorite piece of Tracey’s? Did you use that piece in the collection?
SW: I have several favorite pieces but if forced to choose one it would be the ‘More Passion’ cuff. I think a cuff bracelet is a great statement piece of jewelry and when a statement actually makes a statement, it’s a potent combination that’s hard to ignore.
|Studio album by Ravi Shankar and Philip Glass|
|Genre||Contemporary classical, Hindustani classical, world|
Passages is a collaborative chamber music studio album co-composed by Ravi Shankarand Philip Glass, released in 1990 through Atlantic Records. The album’s content is a hybrid of Hindustani classical music and Glass’ distinct American minimal contemporary classical style. The album reached a peak position of number three on Billboard‘s Top World Music Albums chart.
|BOOK OF LONGING
PHILIP GLASS & LEONARD COHEN
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The Time Salvador Dali Worked for Walt Disney
Did you know that Disney briefly employed the world’s most famous surrealist?
Did you know that Disney briefly employed the world’s most famous surrealist?
Salvador Dali was approached by Disney himself in 1945 to propose a collaborative film. Entitled Destino, the picture would be based upon a Mexican folk song of the same name, with the music played to accompany a sequence of Dali-designed animation. The overjoyed surrealist enthusiastically agreed and quickly began sketching storyboards.
Disney’s sudden turn to surrealism was an attempt to silence several of his critics who felt that his films all too often sacrificed genuine artistry at the altar of marketability—favouring tradition and safety over innovation and experimentation. The evocative Fantasia, released in 1940, had been a groundbreaking first step on this front, and the animator now hoped that Destino would keep this newfound momentum going.
But alas, the project died in infancy and Disney pulled the plug on the film after its third month of production. Though he would remain lifelong friends with Dali afterwards, nothing remains of their short-lived joint venture but a 15-second demo reel and a handful of rudimentary sketches.
However, some 54 years later, the development of Fantasia’s long-awaited sequel, Fantasia 2000, inspired Disney’s nephew, Roy, to finally revive the project. A team of French animators were brought on board to produce the six-minute film on the basis of Dali’s notes and storyboards. In 2003, his musical vision was released at long last. Their efforts are currently available on YouTube:
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marcel duchamp and man ray
In 1915, when Marcel Duchamp accompanied Walter C. Arensberg in 1915 to visit Man Ray in Ridgefield, NJ, the two artists, meeting for the first time, played an impromptu game of tennis. Man Ray recalled with humor: “Duchamp didn�t speak English and my French was nonexistent […] so in order to have a conversation I would give a name to each pass […] and each time Duchamp would reply in English with a single word, “yes”. (Man Ray , 1964, p. 63).
- Straightaway, they seemed to be opposites in every way. The photograph of Duchamp, taken by Man Ray in 1920-1921, shows a character sharp, elegant, his profile chiseled and his body thin under his bulky overcoat. His manner of speaking was serene and his whole demeanor cerebral: an ‘éminence grise’. Man Ray on the other hand is warm and impetuous. The portrait taken of him by Alfred Stieglitz in 1915 shows the roundness of his face framed by brown curls and highlights his bright gaze. In three words: “Man Ray, n. masc., synom. de Joie, jouer, jouir [Joy, play, come]” (M. Duchamp , 1994, p. 243). Not only do language and appearance separate them, their origins distinguish them as well. Duchamp, born of a notable Normandy family, received a classical education. Closely linked to his brothers and sisters, who were already recognized as artists, Marcel inherited social legitimacy and cared little for a professional career. He had “no solutions because he has no problems.” (M. Duchamp, quoted in M. Sanouillet, 1998, p. 212). Man Ray on the other hand, was the child of Russian immigrants. He was raised in a modest Brooklyn household, where he helped his parents in their garment workshop. He took drawing classes in New York City, frequented anarchist groups, and unlike Duchamp, his situation worried him. Fashion photography provided Man Ray with financial security and recognition. Man Ray had “no problems, just solutions.” (Man Ray, quoted in M. Sanouillet, ibid.)
The source for the fraternal friendship that linked the two men is to be found in their shared freedom and independence of spirit. Aside from a passion for chess, they shared a taste for the subversive and an irresistible desire to invent. Intellectually, their processes were similar. As art terrorists, they both knew how to place mines under artistic conventions, and their works, without being similar, nevertheless responded to the other. One can hardly evoke Man Ray�s objects without, in the background, projecting the shadow of Duchamp�s ready-mades. In fact, Man Ray�s taste for using objects and experimenting with language came from Duchamp. During the 1913 Armory Show, Man Ray remarked that Nu descendant un escalier might have gone unnoticed if it had a different title. “And that gave me an idea, so that after that time I always gave titles to my objects. They don�t explain the work, but they add what you could call a literary element that goads the spirit.& (Man Ray photographe, 1981, p. 36).
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Marcel Duchamp, ‘Rrose Sélavy’, from a 1921 series of photographs by Man
In this class we have learned how two different artists can come together to create a new work of art. Some times they pieces they create can be strange but wonderful at the same time, in other cases what is created is amazing. The above is some research i have done on the subject and i have really enjoyed finding out about it.
I am also in the process of collaborating with two other students to create a piece of work, it is very exciting and i cannot wait to find out what we as a collective group come up with.
ALL RESEARCH TAKEN FROM GOOGLE SEARCH/IMAGES
Enjoy the read !!!!!!
This year I have been given the opportunity to collaborate with other students. After some time students from not only Inverness but also Perth Colleges have split into groups to create a collaboration with each group.
I am with Olga Beaton and Mariea Turner. We as a group are going to be creating a piece of clothing which is hand made. Mariea loves to make random patterned material, so because of this, I had a thought when we were talking on social media of an afghan type top to make from the material. Mariea will dye the material and I will make the piece up and the crochet detail and Olga will be photographing as we go along. If Olga cannot get photographs Mariea and myself will both take them and give them to Olga to make up the book.
Firstly, in this process Mariea will be dying the material which will be transformed into the piece. Once this is completed she will then send the material to myself and I will make up the piece, by cutting material to shape and pinning for stitching. I will then crochet the detail which will be added to the piece. As each of the stages I will be completing is done I will be photographing them as I go along if I am not with Olga as then we still have a record of what happened to the material.
I think the aim of this collaboration to me, is to show that craft can also be an art form. Using these skills to create something beautiful to look at which can also be worn. There has always been this thin line between art and craft and I as an artist see craft as an art form of its own. Art doesn’t just need to be on a canvas it can be everywhere and can be anything, using craft techniques to create art has always been on this earth as far back as the beginning of the human race, and will continue to be a part of everyday life, from the cave men who used craft to create the tools they used to the clothes they wore to the paintings they left behind all came from a very very early form of craft, and without this we would know nothing about our past as a human race. To quilting artists and people like Alexandra Kehayoglou who creates wonderful landscapes in carpets which are hand crafted, and to Magda Sayeg who is the founder of yarn bombing which is an amazing form of art that is taken to everyone and involves craft to make it. These artists have changed how we see craft and changed it into an art form and therefore we are collaborating to do the piece we are all doing.
Using craft as art and showing how it can be used as art is a good way to try and break down the barrier of people’s thoughts of what art is and what it can be.