Theories,Practices and Protocols of working in the Public Realm with Rachel Fermi.

Research of Artists involved in  this subject:

The following shows how art has become very public indeed. The following information was found on google search/images.

Some of the pieces that have been created are amazing and worth a look.

Enjoy the read and looking at the pictures also.

 

Beverly Naidus: Eden Reframed

Beverly Naidus (born 1953) is an American artist, author and current faculty member of University of Washington Tacoma. She is the author of several artist books including One Size Does Not Fit All (1993) and What Kinda Name is That? (1996) which has been discussed by academics in the field including Paul Von Blum, Lucy R. Lippard and reviewed by contemporary journals. She has received multiple grants including the Massachusetts Cultural Council Artist’s Grant in Photography (2001) to fund her art creations and teaching. She was also a finalist in the Andy Warhol Foundation and Creative Capital’s Art Writers Grant Program (2007). Her most recent book Arts for Change: Teaching Outside the Frame (2009)[1] is her personal pedagogy on teaching and creating socially engaged art.[2] She also provides suggestions on engaging students in what is most important to them.[3][4] 

demonstration of soil remediation via plants and mushrooms. In the center of the garden is a story hive that houses the stories of farmers and gardeners on the island who responded to the question: why do you plant seeds in a time of ecological crisis?

SATURDAY, JULY 12, 2014

Eden Reframed gets a HUGE BOOST via the newly formed Eden Society

So it’s clear from my lack of posting on this blog, that I have not had much time and energy for this project. While I HAVE been hosting events for the solstices and equinoxes at Eden Reframed consistently since September 2011, these past two years have been full-tilt demanding in other areas of my life and practice. So for that reason alone, I am enormously grateful that the folks on Vashon have formed the Eden Society to maintain and nourish this eco-art project. Given that it is the first and only food forest on Vashon, and perhaps one of the first in the Puget Sound, it is really important that this project doesn’t sink into disrepair or get choked by invasive weeds. If you have an interest in joining the Eden Society, please contact Margot Boyer mfboyer@speakeasy.net – the next meeting is at Eden Reframed on August 14th at 4 pm. Here’s some photos of the amazing folks of Eden Society who came out on July 10th, 2014 to remove weeds and return the project to its best self. Kudos to Margot Boyer, Nan Wilson, Swaneagle Harjian, Phillip Devanter, Charlie and Elizabeth. 

i love the above introducing an eco-garden is an amazing thing to do, and i would love to do this in the future to encourage my local community to get together to create something worth while. It  give a sense of well being and encourages people to take care of the planet we live on. It educates and constantly gives a reminder of how simple it is to play a part in the protection of the planet.

Joseph Beuys :7000 Oaks

With the help of volunteers, Beuys planted 7,000 oak trees over several years in KasselGermany, each with an accompanying basalt stone. In regard to the extensive urbanization of the setting the work was an extensive artistic and ecological intervention with the goal of enduringly altering the living space of the city. The project, though at first controversial, has become an important part of Kassel’s cityscape.

The artwork, circa 2008.

The project was of enormous scope, and met with some controversy. While the biggest difficulty of the project was raising the money, the project had its share of opponents. Much of it was political, from the conservative state government dominated by the Christian Democrats. (The mayor of Kassel was a social democrat who stood by Beuys). Some people thought the black stone markers were ugly, even piling pink stones on the sites in 1982 as a prank. Also, a motorcyclist had died as a result of one of the stone markers. However, as more trees were planted people’s perception of the project as a parking lot destroyer had met with increasing tolerance.[1]

“I think the tree is an element of regeneration which in itself is a concept of time. The oak is especially so because it is a slowly growing tree with a kind of really solid heart wood. It has always been a form of sculpture, a symbol for this planet ever since the Druids, who are called after the oak. Druid means oak. They used their oaks to define their holy places. I can see such a use for the future…. The tree planting enterprise provides a very simple but radical possibility for this when we start with the seven thousand oaks.” (Joseph Beuys in conversation with Richard Demarco, 1982 )

“The planting of seven thousand oak trees is only a symbolic beginning. Contrary to its initiative, progressive features such a symbolic beginning requires a marker, in this instance a basalt column. Future goals for the project included: a) an ongoing scheme of tree planting to be extended throughout the world as part of a global mission to effect environmental & social change “the purpose of educational activities”; b) a growth of awareness within the urban environment of the human dependence on the larger ecosystem educational outreach ; and c) an ongoing process whereby the society would be activated by means of human creative will social sculpture.”

Beuys’ art works and performances are not about entertaining and amusing the audience. It is an awakening message from the tradition, a recognition of the whole based upon a new concept of beauty that extends beyond the instant gratification.

“I not only want to stimulate people, I want to provoke them.” (Bastian, Heines and Jeannot Simmen, “Interview with Joseph Beuys,” in the catalog exhibition, Joseph Beuys, Drawings, Victoria and Albert Museum, Westerham Press, 1983, no folio)

The above i think was totally inspiring as not only does it bring the community together but it also give back to the planet. No matter how mundane you think the tree is, in actual fact it is a very important part of our eco-system. The tree’s are the lungs of the earth and produce oxygen which we as a species need to survive. Giving back in this way is an amazing thing to do and should be done all over the planet.

 

 

Relational Aesthetics: The Art of Sociability | New Britain Museum …

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Relational Aesthetics: The Art of Sociability

 

Relational Aesthetics is the New Black: DIY Art School | ART21 …

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Relational Aesthetics is the New Black: DIY Art School

 

Ben Lewis TV » Relational Art

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relational_GonzalezTorres …

 

Towards a critical relational art (illustrated talk) | D Rosier

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I want to take you on a brief critical journey of relational art by looking at 3 works.

 

 

Hungry Hyaena: Her Colorful Obliteration

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Yayoi Kusama “Obliteration Room” 2011-12

 

 

Relational Painting aka Black is Beautiful… | William Pope… | Flickr

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Relational Painting aka Black is Beautiful… | by Art or Idiocy?

 

 

What is Participatory and Relational Art?

 

This introductory text provides a brief overview of Participatory and Relational Art. Terms associated with Participatory and Relational Art are indicated in CAPITALS and are elaborated on in the glossary or by hovering the cursor over the term.

 

PARTICIPATORY ARTS refers to a range of arts practice, including RELATIONAL AESTHETICS, where emphasis is placed on the role of the viewer or spectator in the physical or conceptual realisation and reception of the artwork. The central component of Participatory Arts is the active participation of the viewer or spectator. Many forms of Participatory Arts practice foreground the role of collaboration in the realisation of an artwork, deemphasising the role of the professional artist as sole creator or author of the artwork, while building social bonds through communal meaning and activity. The term Participatory Arts encompasses a range of arts practices informed by social, political, geographic, economic and cultural imperatives, such as COMMUNITY ARTS, ACTIVIST ART, NEW GENRE PUBLIC ART, SOCIALLY-ENGAGED ART and DIALOGICAL ART.

 

Participatory Arts can be artform specific, such as visual arts, music or drama, or they can be INTERDISCIPLINARY involving COLLABORATION across a range of artforms. They can also involve collaboration with non-art agencies, such as social inclusion organisations, local authorities and community development groups. The artwork produced can take many forms and, due to the collaborative nature of Participatory Arts, this may comprise an event, a SITUATION or a PERFORMANCE, rather than the production of an object. The interactions that emerge from these encounters are often translated into DOCUMENTARY mediums, such as PHOTOGRAPHY, VIDEO or TEXT.

 

The emergence of Participatory Arts is informed by earlier AVANT-GARDE movements such as DADA, CONSTRUCTIVISM and SURREALISM, which raised questions with regard to notions of originality and authorship and challenged conventional assumptions about the passive role of the viewer or spectator. In doing so they adopted an anti-bourgeois position on the role and function of art.

 

The social, political and cultural upheavals of the 1960s and the perceived elitism, social disengagement and COMMODIFICATION of art associated with MODERNISM contributed to new forms of politicised, reactionary and socially engaged practice, such as CONCEPTUAL ART, FLUXUS and SITUATIONISM. The development of new technologies and improved mechanisms of communication and distribution, combined with the break down of medium-specific artforms, provided greater possibilities for artists to physically interact with the viewer. New forms of practice were developed by artists, who proactively sought out new artistic mediums to shape mutual exchange through open and inclusive practices. These new forms of practice appropriated non-hierarchical social forms and were informed by a range of theoretical and practical disciplines, such as FEMINISM, POSTCOLONIAL THEORY, PSYCHOANALYSIS, CRITICAL THEORY and LITERARY THEORY. While questions of authorship raised concerns about who participates in the definition and production of art, the relationship of the artwork to its audience became a central axis for these emerging forms of arts practice.

 

The presumed authorial control of the artist was challenged in particular by Conceptual artists who placed an emphasis on the idea or concept rather than a tangible art object. They created artworks which could be realised by others without the direct intervention of the artist. Artworks could take the form of a set of instructions, where participants were directly involved in the co-creation of the artwork. Instructions were communicated through a variety of media, such as photography, video, drawing, text, performance, SOUND, SCULPTURE and INSTALLATION.

 

Similarly, Fluxus artists rejected traditional principles of craftsmanship, permanency of the art object and the notion of the artist as specialist. Fluxus artists viewed art not as a finite object but as a time-based experience, employing performance and theatrical experiments. Fluxus artists were interested in the transformative potential of art through collaboration. Spectators were encouraged to interact with the performer, while plotless staged events left artworks open to artistic chance and interpretation. Artworks were realised in a range of media, including musical scores, performances, events, publications, MULTIPLES and assembled environments constructed to envelop the observer. These initiatives were often conceived with workshop characteristics, whereby the artist operated as facilitator, engaging the audience in philosophical discussions about the meaning of art. Artworks often took the form of meetings and public demonstrations, HAPPENINGS or SOCIAL SCULPTURE, whereby the meaning of the work was derived from the collective engagement of the participants. A common goal of Fluxus, Happenings and Situationist events was to develop a new synthesis between politics and art, where political activism was mirrored in streetbased arts practice as a radical means to eliminate distinctions between art and life.

 

The development of Participatory Arts practice has also been informed and shaped by the development of PUBLIC ART programmes, many of which evolved in the context of large-scale urban renewal and regeneration initiatives. Participatory Arts programmes with their emphasis on public engagement and participation can be an important element in both the consensus-building process and critique of such regeneration initiatives. The economic downturn and social political turmoil of the 1980s combined with the alienating effects of capitalism and its impact on community structures, resulted in an increasing awareness of the potential of the arts as a vehicle to address social issues, in particular issues of social inclusion. Influenced by earlier forms of socially-engaged and activist art, many Community Arts organisations and initiatives emerged during this period. Community Arts emphasised the role of art in bringing about social aspects of the art initiative were imperative. Dialogical Aesthetics is a term used to describe the active role of dialogue in such socially-engaged art. During this period, state bodies funding the arts began to impose contingencies on their client organisations, such as MUSEUMS, GALLERIES, theatres and arts organisations, with regard to encouraging public participation in the arts, especially on the part of marginalised or socially excluded constituencies. The utilisation of the arts to address non-arts agendas contributed to an ongoing debate about the role of art and its relationship to its audience, which continues to inform consideration of Participatory Arts today.

 

In the late 1990s participatory concepts have been expanded upon by a new generation of artists identified under the heading of RELATIONAL ART or Relational Aesthetics. This is a term coined by the French curator Nicolas Bourriaud to describe a range of open-ended art practices, concerned with the network of human relations and the social context in which such relations arise. Relational Art also stresses the notion of artworks as gifts, taking multiple forms, such as meals, meetings, parties, posters, casting sessions, games, discussion platforms and other types of social events and cooperations. In this context, emphasis is placed on the use of the artwork. Art is regarded as information exchanged between the artist and the viewer which relies on the responses of others to make it relational.

 

In response to the rapid acceleration of real time communications in the twenty first century a new term, ALTERMODERN, also devised by Bourriaud, proposes an alternative to the conceptual lineage of POSTMODERNISM. According to Bourriaud, the opening of new market economies and the mobility of artist and audience has stimulated new models for political and cultural exchange and participation. Through global distribution systems, artists can cut across geographic and political boundaries. A new cultural framework consisting of diaspora, migration and exodus offers alternative modes of interpretation and understanding of the artwork. The decentralisation of global culture presents new formats for exchange between artist and audience, which are continually susceptible and adaptable to readily-available technologies. DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY and the INTERNET’S global social networks can promote a sense of participation without the physical gathering of people in any one location. This represents a fundamental shift in traditional notions of community and our experience of artworks.

 

Participatory and Relational Art raise important questions about the meaning and purpose of art in society, about the role of the artist and the experience of the audience as participant. Many arts organisations and museums and galleries, such as the Irish Museum of Modern Art, integrate the inclusive principles of Participatory Arts in their policy and practice, informing strategies for programming and audience development to provide opportunities for meaningful engagement with Contemporary Art.

 

Irish Museum of Modern Art, Royal Hospital, Kilmainham, Dublin 8, Ireland

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Relational art or relational aesthetics is a mode or tendency in fine art practice originally observed and highlighted by French art critic Nicolas Bourriaud. Bourriaud defined the approach as “a set of artistic practices which take as their theoretical and practical point of departure the whole of human relations and their social context, rather than an independent and private space.”[1] The artist can be more accurately viewed as the “catalyst” in relational art, rather than being at the centre.[2]

 

 

 

Main article: Traffic (art exhibition)

One of the first attempts to analyze and categorize art from the 1990s,[3] the idea of Relational Art[4] was developed by Nicolas Bourriaud in 1998 in his book Esthétique relationnelle (Relational Aesthetics).[5] The term was first used in 1996, in the catalogue for the exhibition Traffic curated by Bourriaud at CAPC musée d’art contemporain de Bordeaux.[6] Traffic included the artists that Bourriaud would continue to refer to throughout the 1990s, such as Henry Bond, Vanessa Beecroft, Maurizio Cattelan, Dominique Gonzalez-Foerster, Liam Gillick, Christine Hill, Carsten Höller, Pierre Huyghe, Miltos Manetas, Jorge Pardo, Philippe Parreno, and Rirkrit Tiravanija.[7][7][8][9]

 

Relational aesthetics

Bourriaud wishes to approach art in a way that ceases “to take shelter behind Sixties art history”,[10] and instead seeks to offer different criteria by which to analyse the often opaque and open-ended works of art of the 1990s. To achieve this, Bourriaud imports the language of the 1990s internet boom, using terminology such as user-friendliness, interactivity and DIY (do-it-yourself).[11] In his 2002 book Postproduction: Culture as Screenplay: How Art Reprograms the World, Bourriaud describes Relational Aesthetics as a book addressing works that take as their point of departure the changing mental space opened by the internet.[12]

 

Relational art

Artists included by Bourriaud under the rubric of Relational Aesthetics include Rirkrit Tiravanija, Philippe Parreno, Carsten Höller, Henry Bond, Douglas Gordon and Pierre Huyghe.

 

Bourriaud explores this notion of relational aesthetics through examples of what he calls relational art. According to Bourriaud, relational art encompasses “a set of artistic practices which take as their theoretical and practical point of departure the whole of human relations and their social context, rather than an independent and private space.”[13]

 

The artwork creates a social environment in which people come together to participate in a shared activity. Bourriaud claims “the role of artworks is no longer to form imaginary and utopian realities, but to actually be ways of living and models of action within the existing real, whatever scale chosen by the artist.”[14]

 

Robert Stam, the head of new media and film studies at New York University, coined a term for the shared activity group: witnessing publics. Witnessing publics are “that loose collection of individuals, constituted by and through the media, acting as observers of injustices that might otherwise go unreported or unanswered.” The meaning of relational art is created when arts perception is altered while leaving the original artifact intact.[15]

 

An example of this is “Frenchising the Mona Lisa”, where artist Amir Baradaran invited patrons of the Louvre Museum in Paris to experience the Mona Lisa draped in a French flag in the style of a hijab. Baradaran used augmented reality to call upon paradoxes. Augmented reality layers virtual content upon real places or things experienced in direct time and place with the use of a mobile- format AR application.[16]

 

The paradoxes called upon are that Mona Lisa also wears a veil, but one that is socially approved. This refers to the law enacted in France that made it illegal for women to wear headgear, such as a niqāb, that covers their face in public.

 

In Relational art, the audience is envisaged as a community. Rather than the artwork being an encounter between a viewer and an object, relational art produces intersubjective encounters. Through these encounters, meaning is elaborated collectively, rather than in the space of individual consumption.[17]

 

In “Antagonism and Relational Aesthetics”, published in 2004 in October, Claire Bishop describes the aesthetic of Palais de Tokyo as a “laboratory”, the “curatorial modus operandi” of art produced in the 1990s.[19] Bishop writes, “An effect of this insistent promotion of these ideas as artists-as-designer, function over contemplation, and open-endedness over aesthetic resolution is often ultimately to enhance the status of the curator, who gains credit for stage-managing the overall laboratory experience. As Hal Foster warned in the mid-1990s, ‘the institution may overshadow the work that it otherwise highlights: it becomes the spectacle, it collects the cultural capital, and the director-curator becomes the star.'”[20] Bishop identifies Bourriaud’s book as an important first step in identifying tendencies in the art of the 1990s.[21] However, Bishop also asks, “if relational art produces human relations, then the next logical question to ask is what types of relations are being produced, for whom, and why?”[22] She continues that “the relations set up by relational aesthetics are not intrinsically democratic, as Bourriaud suggests, since they rest too comfortably within an ideal of subjectivity as whole and of community as immanent togetherness.”[23]

 

Nanas by Niki de Saint Phalle in HanoverGermany

Cher Krause Knight states, “art’s publicness rests in the quality and impact of its exchange with audiences … at its most public, art extends opportunities for community engagement but cannot demand particular conclusion”, it introduces social ideas but leaves room for the public to come to their own conclusions.[1] In recent years, public art has increasingly begun to expand in scope and application — both into other wider and challenging areas of artform, and also across a much broader range of what might be called our ‘public realm’. Such cultural interventions have often been realised in response to creatively engaging a community’s sense of ‘place’ or ‘well-being’ in society.

Such commissions can still result in physical, permanent artworks and sculptures. These also often involve increasingly integrated and applied arts type applications. However, they are also beginning to include other, much more process-driven and action-research based artistic practices as well. As such, these do not always rely on the production of a physical or permanent artwork at all (though they still often do of course). This expanded scope of public art can embrace many diverse practices and artforms. These might be implemented as stand-alone, or as collaborative hybrids involving a multi-disciplinary approach. The range of its potential is of course endless, ever-changing, and subject to continual debate and differences of opinion among artists, funders, curators, and commissioning clients.

Monuments, memorials and civic statuary are perhaps the oldest and most obvious form of officially sanctioned public art, although it could be said that architectural sculpture and even architecture itself is more widespread and fulfills the definition of public art. Increasingly most aspects of the built environment are seen as legitimate candidates for consideration as, or location for, public art, including, street furniturestreet lightingLock On sculptures and graffiti. Public art is not confined to physical objects; danceprocessionstreet theatre and even poetry have proponents that specialize in public art.

Sculpture intended as public art is often constructed of durable, easily cared-for material, to avoid the worst effects of the elements and vandalism; however, many works are intended to have only a temporary existence and are made of more ephemeral materials. Permanent works are sometimes integrated with architecture and landscaping in the creation or renovation of buildings and sites,an especially important example being the programme developed in the new city of Milton Keynes, England.

Some artists working in this discipline use the freedom afforded by an outdoor site to create very large works that would be unfeasible in a gallery, for instance Richard Long’s three-week walk, entitled “The Path is the Place in the Line”. In a similar example, sculptor Gar Waterman created a giant arch measuring 35x37x3 feet which straddled a city street in New Haven, Connecticut.[2] Amongst the works of the last thirty years that have met greatest critical and popular acclaim are pieces by ChristoRobert SmithsonAndy GoldsworthyJames Turrell and Antony Gormley, whose artwork reacts to or incorporates its environment.

Artists making public art range from the greatest masters such as MichelangeloPablo Picasso, and Joan Miró, to those who specialize in public art such as Claes Oldenburg and Pierre Granche, to anonymous artists who make surreptitious interventions.

In Cape Town, South Africa, Africa Centre presents the Infecting the City Public Art Festival. Its curatorial mandate is to create a week-long platform for public art – whether it be visual or performative artworks, or artistic interventions – that shake up the city spaces and allows the city’s users to view the cityscapes in new and memorable ways. The Infecting the City Festival believes that public art should to be freely accessible to everybody in a public space[3]

 

History of public art

In the 1930s, the production of national symbolism implied by 19th century monuments starts being regulated by long-term national programs with propaganda goals (Federal Art Project, United States; Cultural Office, Soviet Union). Programs like President Roosevelt’s New Deal facilitated the development of public art during the Great Depression but was wrought with propaganda goals. New Deal art support programs intended to develop national pride in American culture while avoiding addressing the faltering economy that said culture was built upon.[1] Although problematic, New Deal programs such as FAP altered the relationship between the artist and society by making art accessible to all people.[1] The New Deal program Art-in-Architecture (A-i-A) developed percent for art programs, a structure for funding public art still utilized today. This program gave one half of one percent of total construction costs of all government buildings to purchase contemporary American art for that structure.[1] A-i-A helped solidify the principle that public art in the US should be truly owned by the public. They also established the legitimacy of the desire for site-specific public art.[1] While problematic at times, early public art programs set the foundation for current public art development.Wolf Vostell Ruhender Verkehr / Stationary traffic, Cologne, 1969

This notion of public art radically changes during the 1970s, following up to the civil rights movement’ claims on the public space, the alliance between urban regeneration programs and artistic interventions at the end of the 1960s and the revision of the notion of sculpture.[4] In this context, public art acquires a status which goes beyond mere decoration and visualization of official national histories in public space, therefore gaining autonomy as a form of site construction and intervention in the realm of public interests. Public art became much more about the public.[1] This change of perspective is also present by the reinforcement of urban cultural policies in these same years, for example the New York-based Public Art Fund (1977) and several urban or regional Percent for Art programs in the United States and Europe. Moreover, the re-centring of public art discourse from a national to a local level is consistent with the site-specific turn and the critical positions against institutional exhibition spaces emerging in contemporary art practices since the 1960s. The will to create a deepest and more pertinent connection between the production of the artwork and the site where it is made visible prompts different orientations. In 1969 Wolf Vostells Stationary traffic was made in Cologne.

Land artists choose to situate large-scale, process-oriented interventions in remote landscape situations; the Spoleto Festival (1962) creates an open-air museum of sculptures in the medieval city of Spoleto, and the German city of Münster starts, in 1977, a curated event bringing art in public urban places every 10 years (Skulptur Projekte Münster). In the group show When Attitudes Become Form,[5] the exhibition situation is expanded in the public space by Michael Heizer and Daniel Buren’s interventions; architectural scale emerges in the work of artists such as Donald Judd as well as in Gordon Matta-Clark’s temporary interventions in dismissed urban buildings.

 

Environmental public art

La Joute by Jean-Paul Riopelle, an outdoor kineticsculpture installation with fire jets, fog machines, and a fountain in Montreal.

Between the 1970s and the 1980s, gentrification and ecological issues surface in public art practices both as a commission motive and as a critical focus brought in by artists. The individual, Romantic retreat element implied in the conceptual structure of Land art and its will to reconnect the urban environment with nature, is turned into a political claim in projects such as Wheatfield – A Confrontation (1982), by American artist Agnes Denes, as well as in Joseph Beuys’ 7000 Oaks (1982). Both projects focus on the raise of ecological awareness through a green urban design process, bringing Denes to plant a two-acre field of wheat in downtown Manhattan and Beuys to plant 7000 oaks coupled with basalt blocks in Kassel, Germany in a guerrilla or community garden fashion. In recent years, programs of green urban regeneration aiming at converting abandoned lots into green areas regularly include public art programs. This is the case of High Line Art, 2009, a commission program for the High Line Park, derived from the conversion of a portion of railroad in New York City; and of Gleisdreieck, 2012, an urban park derived from the partial reconversion of a railway station in Berlin which hosts, since 2012, an open-air contemporary art exhibition.

The 1980s also witness the institutionalisation of sculpture parks as curated programs. While the first public and private open-air sculpture exhibitions and collections dating back to the 1930s[6] aim at creating an appropriate setting for large-scale sculptural forms difficult to show in museum galleries, experiences such as Noguchi’s garden in Queens, New York (1985) state the necessity of a permanent relationship between the artwork and its site.

This line also develops in Donald Judd’s project for the Chinati Foundation (1986) in Texas, advocating for the permanent nature of large-scale installations, which fragility may be destroyed when re-locating the work. The trial instructed by judge Edward D. Re in 1985 to re-locate American artist Richard Serra’s Tilted Arc, a monumental intervention commissioned for Manhattan‘s Federal Plaza by the “Art-in-Architecture” Program, also contributes to the debate about public art site-specificity. In his line of defence for the trial, Richard Serra claims: “Tilted Arc was commissioned and designed for one particular site: Federal Plaza. It is a site-specific work and as such not to be relocated. To remove the work is to destroy the work”. The trial around Tilted Arc shows the essential role played by site-specificity in public art. Moreover, one of the arguments brought into the trial by judge Edward D. Re is the intolerance of the community of users of the Federal Plaza towards Serra’s intervention and the support of the art community, represented by art critic Douglas Crimp’s testimony. In both cases, the audience positions itself as a major factor of the artistic intervention in public space. Within this context, the definition of public art comes to include artistic projects focusing on public issues (democracy, citizenship, integration); participative artistic actions involving the community; artistic projects commissioned and/or funded by a public body, within the Percent for Art schemes, or by a community.

 

New genre public art in the 1990s: anti-monuments and memorial practices

In the 1990s, the clear differentiation of these new practices from previous forms of artistic presence in the public space calls for alternative definitions, some of them more specific (contextual artrelational artparticipatory artdialogic artcommunity-based artactivist art), other more comprehensive, such as “new genre public art”.

In this way, public art functions as a social intervention. Artists became fully engaged in civic activism by the 1970s and many adopted a pluralist approach to public art.[1] This approach eventually developed into the “new genre public art”, which is defined by Suzanne Lacyas “socially engaged, interactive art for diverse audiences with connections to identity politics and social activism”.[1] Rather than metaphorically discussing social issues, as did previous public art, practitioners of the “new genre” wanted to explicitly empower marginalized groups, all while maintaining aesthetic appeal.[1] Curator Mary Jane Jacob of “Sculpture Chicago” developed a show, ‘’Culture in Action’’, in summer 1993 that followed principles of new genre public art. The show intended to investigate social systems though audience participatory art, engaging especially with audiences that typically did not participate in traditional art museums.[1] While controversial, Culture in Action introduced new models for community participation and interventionist public art that reaching beyond the “new genre”.

Earlier groups also used public art as an avenue for social intervention. In the 1960s and 70s, the artist collective Situationist International created work that “challenged the assumptions of everyday life and its institutions” through physical intervention.[1] Another artists collective interested in social intervention, Guerrilla Girls, started in the 1980s and persists today. Their public art exposes latent sexism and works to deconstruct male power structures in the art world. Currently, they also address racism in the art world, homelessness, AIDS, and rape culture, all socio-cultural issues the greater world experiences.[1]

In artist Suzanne Lacy’s words, “new genre public art” is “visual art that uses both traditional and non traditional media to communicate and interact within a broad and diversified audience about issues directly relevant to their life”.[7] Her position implies pondering over the conditions of commissioning public art, the relation to its users and, to a larger extent, a divergent interpretation of the role of the audience. In the Institutional critique practice of artists such as Hans Haacke (since the 1970s) and Fred Wilson (since the 1980s), the work’s publicness corresponds to making visible for the public opinion and in the public sphere controversial public issues such as discriminatory museum policies or illegal corporation acts.

Making visible issues of public concern in the public sphere is also at the basis of the anti-monument philosophy, whose target is mining the ideology of official history. On the one hand, introducing intimate elements in public spaces normally devoted to institutional narratives, such as in the work of Jenny Holzer,[8] Alfredo Jaar’s project Es usted feliz? / Are you happy?[9] and Felix Gonzales-Torres’ billboard images.[10] On the other, through pointing at the incongruities of existing public sculptures and memorials, such as in Krzysztof Wodiczko’s video projections onto urban monuments, or in the building of counter-monuments (1980s) and Claes Oldenburg’s Lipstick (Ascending) on Caterpillar Tracks (1969-1974), a giant hybrid pop object – a lipstick – which base is a caterpillar track. Commissioned by the association of architecture students of the Yale University, the latter is a large-scale sculpture situated in the campus in front of the memorial to World War I. In 1982, Maya Lin, at the time a senior student in Architecture at Yale, completed the construction of Vietnam Veterans Memorial, listing 59’000 names of American citizens who died in the Vietnam war. Lin chooses for this work to list the names of the dead without producing any images to illustrate the loss, if not by the presence of a cut – like an injury – in the installation site floor. The cut and the site / non-site logics will stay as a recurrent image in contemporary memorials since the 1990s.[11]

Another memorial strategy is to focus on the origin of the conflict responsible for the casualties: in this line, Robert Filliou proposes, in his Commemor (1970), to have European countries exchange their memorials; Esther Shalev-Gerz and Jochem Gertz built a Memorial against Fascism (1983) in the German city of Hamburg. Others, such as Thomas Hirschhorn, build, in collaboration with local communities, precarious anti-monuments devoted to thinkers such as Spinoza (1999), Gilles Deleuze (2000) and Georges Bataille(2002).

 

On the occasion of the 13th Istanbul Biennial and following the protests in Turkey 2013 the Istanbul-based platform InEnArt launched an online research about Public Space as a Political Forum, opening under the title Urban Voices a critical view on cultural practices and phenomena that expresses the ethos, aspirations, and dreams of a specific population during a well-defined era and that triggered dramatic cultural changes. Urban Voices focuses on phenomena that are leaving a lasting impact on mainstream cultural values as the Situationist International did with the practices of drifting and détournement. The protest culture in Turkey as described with the neologism Çapuling became as well a focus point of Urban Voices.[26]

In December 2013, the Bristol, UK based organisation Situations published The New Rules of Public Art. Situations reimagines what public art can be and where and when it can take place. They like to think and reflect on what happens when the spark of an idea is lit. These rules open up the potential for artists to make extraordinary ideas happen in unusual and surprising places, through which audiences and participants are inspired to explore new horizons.[27]

Interactive public art[edit]

Public fountain sculpture that is also a musical instrument (hydraulophone), which any member of the public can play at any time of the day or night.

Daan Roosegaarde – Crystal exists out of hundreds of individual salt crystals that light up when you interact with them.

Some forms of public art are designed to encourage audience participation in a hands-on way. Examples include public art installed at hands-on science museums such as the main architectural centerpiece out in front of the Ontario Science Centre. This permanently installed artwork is a fountain that is also a musical instrument (hydraulophone) that members of the public can play at any time of the day or night. Members of the public interact with the work by blocking water jets to force water through various sound-producing mechanisms inside the sculpture.

Federation Bells in Birrarung MarrMelbourne is also public art which works as a musical instrument.

Rebecca Krinke’s “Map of Joy and Pain” and “What Needs to be Said” invite public participation. In “Maps” visitors paint places of pleasure and pain on a map of the Twin Cities in gold and blue; in “What Needs to be Said” they write words and put them on a wall. Krinke is present and observes the nature of the interaction.[28] Dutch artist Daan Roosegaarde explores the nature of the public. His interactive artwork Crystal in Eindhoven can be shared or stolen. Crystal exists out of hundreds of individual salt crystals that light up when you interact with them [29]

An outdoor interactive installation by Maurizio Bolognini (Genoa, 2005), which everybody can modify by using a cell phone.

Public art on display at Clarence DockLeedsUK

From a broader framework of art and its relationship to film,[30] and the history of motion picture; additional types of ‘public art’ worth considering are media and film works in the digital art space.[31]According to Ginette Vincendeau and Susay Hayward, who argue in their book “French Film: Texts and Contexts”, taught in introduction to cinema at University of London and European Higher Education, film is indeed an art form, and goes on to argue that film is also high art.[32] Furthermore, the context of film and public spaces in the history of municipal areas and monuments may be traced back to the Father of film, Georges Méliès, as well as the Lumière brothers who invented the moving image, more commonly known as motion picture in 1896, an artistic movement that culminated in the commercialization of film industry showcased at Paris World Fair of 1900.[33] As we fast approach 2016, many years since the concepts of post-modernity, smart cities and technology were produced by advanced capitalist societies,[34] also strengthens the idea of public art, as any art form that is digital and can also be electronically transmitted and shared via the internet and other technologies under general framework of internet governance by multi-lateral agencies.[35]

Guardians of Time 2011 Manfred Kielnhofer Festival of Lights Berlin Brandenburger Tor

 

Digital public art

Digital public art combines public art and digital art.[36][37] Like traditional public artworks, digital public artworks differ from those found in galleries and museums in that they take place in public, and it has been claimed,[citation needed] adhere to the following categories: [38]

  1. In a place accessible or visible to the public: in public
  2. Concerned with or affecting the community or individuals: public interest
  3. Maintained for or used by the community or individuals: public place
  4. Paid for by the public: publicly funded

Whilst digital public artworks and traditional public artworks may make use of new technologies in their creation and display, what distinguishes digital public artworks are their technological ability to explicitly interact with audiences. Examples might include works which respond to presence – as can be seen in Rafael Lozano-Hemmer‘s work UnderScan (2005), which tended towards formal relations between audience and work [39] and online works, such as those enabled through social networks. An example of the latter might be YouTube’s Life in a Day project, which asked the public to submit video clips of their day, which were then edited into a film.

These public art methodologies differ from digital community art works, (which have also been termed Socially Engaged New Media Art (SENMA) [40]) in terms of how they establish relationships with audience, site and outcome. In community based digital artworks these issues evolve via a dialogical process rather than as an explicit course of action, working or set of relationships (for example among artwork, artist and audience).

 

 

Public art and politics

Public art has often been used for political ends. The most extreme and widely discussed manifestations of this remain the use of art as propaganda within totalitarian regimes coupled with simultaneous suppression of dissent. The approach to art seen in Joseph Stalin‘s Soviet Union and Mao Zedong‘s Cultural Revolution in China stand as representative.

Public art is also often used to refute those propagandistic desires of political regimes. Artists use culture jamming techniques, taking popular media and reinterpreting it with guerrilla-style adaptations, to comment of social and political issues relevant to the public.[1] Artists use culture jamming to facilitate social interactions around political concerns in hopes of changing the way people relate to the world by manipulating existing culture.[1] Adbusters magazine explores contemporary social and political issues through culture jamming by manipulating popular design campaigns.[45]

In more open societies artists often find public art useful in promoting their ideas or establishing a censorship-free means of contact with viewers. The art may be intentionally ephemeral, as in the case of temporary installations and performance pieces. Such art has a spontaneous quality. It is characteristically displayed in urban environments without the consent of authorities. In time, though, some art of this kind achieves official recognition. Examples include situations in which the line between graffiti and “guerilla” public art is blurred, such as the art of John Fekner placed on billboards, the early works of Keith Haring (executed without permission in advertising poster holders in the New York City Subway) and the current work of Banksy. The Northern Irish murals and those in Los Angeles were often responses to periods of conflict. The art provided an effective means of communication both within and beyond a distressed group within the larger society. In the long run, these works, along with many others, prove useful in establishing dialogue and helping to bridge the social rifts that fuel human conflict.

 

Public art faces a design challenge by its very nature: how best to activate the images in its surroundings. The concept of “sustainability” arises in response to the perceived environmental deficiencies of a city. Sustainable development, promoted by the United Nations since the 1980s, includes economical, social, and ecological aspects. A sustainable public art work would include plans for urban regeneration and disassembly. Sustainability has been widely adopted in many environmental planning and engineering projects. Sustainable art is a challenge to respond the needs of an opening space in public.

 

 

 Social practice (art)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Social practice is an art medium that focuses on social engagement, inviting collaboration with individuals, communities, and institutions in the creation of participatory art.[1] It is also referred to by a range of different names: public practice,[2] socially engaged art,[3]community art, new-genre public art,[4] participatory artinterventionist artcollaborative art,[5] relational art and dialogical aesthetics.[6]Social practice art came about in response to increasing pressure within art education to work collaboratively through social and participatory formats.[7]

Artists working in social practice co-create their work with a specific audience or propose critical interventions within existing social systems that inspire debate or catalyze social exchange.[8] Social practice artwork focuses on the interaction between the audience, social systems, and the artist through topics such as aestheticsethicscollaboration, persona, media strategies, and social activism.[9]The social interaction component inspires, drives, or, in some instances, completes the project.[10] Although projects may incorporate traditional studio media, they are realized in a variety of visual or social forms (depending on variable contexts and participant demographics) such as performancesocial activism, or mobilizing communities towards a common goal.[11]

 

Community arts

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Community arts, also sometimes known as “dialogical art”, “community-engaged” or “community-based art,” refers to artistic activity based in a community setting. Works from this genre can be of any media and is characterized by interaction or dialogue with the community. Often professional artists collaborate with people who may not otherwise normally actively engage in the arts. The term was defined in the late-1960s and spawned a movement which grew in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Ireland, and Australia. In Scandinavia, the term “community art” means more often contemporary art project.

Often community art is based in economically deprived areas, with a community-oriented, grassroots approach. Members of a local community will come together to express concerns or issues through an artistic process, sometimes this may involve professional artists or actors. These communal artistic processes act as a catalyst to trigger events or changes within a community or even at a national or international level.

In English-speaking countries, community art is often seen as the work of community arts centre. Visual arts (fine art, video, new media art), music, and theater are common mediums in community art centers. Many arts companies in the UK do some community-based work, which typically involves developing participation by non-professional members of local communities.

 

Participatory art

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Participatory art is an approach to making art in which the audience is engaged directly in the creative process, allowing them to become co-authors, editors, and observers of the work. Therefore,this type of art is incomplete without the viewers physical interaction. Its intent is to challenge the dominant form of making art in the West, in which a small class of professional artists make the art while the public takes on the role of passive observer or consumer, i.e., buying the work of the professionals in the marketplace. Commended works by advocates that popularized participatory art include Augusto Boal in his Theater of the oppressed, as well as Allan Kaprow in happenings.

One of the earliest usages of the term appears in photographer Richard Ross (photographer)’s review for the Los Angeles Institute of Contemporary Art journal of the exhibition “Downtown Los Angeles Artists,” organized by the Santa Barbara Contemporary Arts Forum in 1980. Describing in situ works by Jon Peterson (artist), Maura Sheehan and Judy Simonian anonymously placed around Santa Barbara, Ross wrote, “These artists bear the responsibility to the community. Their art is participatory.”[1]

Artwork that is interactive and participatory may be referred to as “participatory art;” it may also be categorized under terms including relational art, social practice, community art, and new genre public art.

Folk and tribal art are also considered to be “participatory art” in that many or all of the members of the society participate in the making of art. As the ethnomusicologist Bruno Nettl wrote, the tribal group “has no specialization or professionalization; its division of labor depends almost exclusively on sex and occasionally on age, and only rarely are certain individuals proficient in any technique to a distinctive degree … the same songs are known by all the members of the group, and there is little specialization in composition, performance or instrument making.” [2]

In the Fall/Winter issue of Oregon Humanities magazine, writer Eric Gold describes “an artistic tradition called ‘social practice,’ which refers to works of art in which the artist, audience, and their interactions with one another are the medium. While a painter uses pigment and canvas, and a sculptor wood or metal, the social practice artist often creates a scenario in which the audience is invited to participate. Although the results may be documented with photography, video, or otherwise, the artwork is really the interactions that emerge from the audience’s engagement with the artist and the situation.”

Participatory or interactive art creates a dynamic collaboration between the artist, the audience and their environment. Participatory art is not just something that you stand still and quietly look at–it is something you participate in. You touch it, smell it, write on it, talk to it, dance with it, play with it, learn from it. You co-create it. One example of participatory or interactive art in the US is Figment

After-school and community-based arts programs are an incredible opportunity to truly educate students through the arts and provide them with experiences and opportunities they are not getting in the school environment.  Teaching in this environment goes beyond measuring outcomes solely on artistic progression and academic performance. The approach puts the focus on the whole child and how they connect with their peers, their community, and the outside world. Outcomes are often based on developing critical life skills, social/emotional development, civic engagement, social change and justice, and college and career readiness in the arts and creative industries, amongst other indicators. These efforts have been defined as Creative Youth Development (CYD).

 

 

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When Tinguely met Rauschenberg – SWI swissinfo.ch

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Robert Rauschenberg,

Money Thrower, the start of his friendship with Tinguely

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“Robert Rauschenberg – Jean Tinguely. Collaborations” in the Museum Tinguely,Basel (CH)

 

 

Robert Rauschenberg – Jean Tinguely. Collaborations – Art of the day

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Following different paths

 

 

And with billy kluver

 

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Rauschenberg and Billy Klüver working on Oracle 1965

 

Engineers, the Avant-Garde and a Tennis Court: Introducing the …

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Billy Klüver and Robert Rauschenberg, 1966 Yale Joel/The LIFE Picture Collection/Getty Images

 

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Billy Kluver and Robert Rauschenberg

 

 

 

Experiments in Art and Technology was founded in 1966 by engineers Billy Klüver and Fred Waldhauer and artists Robert Rauschenberg and Robert Whitman. The non-profit organization developed from the experience of 9 Evenings: Theatre and Engineering. This event, which was held in October 1966 at the 69th Regiment Armory in New York City (U.S.), brought together 40 engineers and 10 contemporary artists who worked together on performances that incorporated new technology. It became clear that achieving ongoing artist-engineer relationships would require a concerted effort to develop the necessary physical and social conditions. E.A.T. saw itself as a catalyst for stimulating the involvement of industry and technology with the arts. The organization worked to forge effective collaborations between artists and engineers through industrial cooperation and sponsorship. Membership was opened to all artists and engineers, and an office set up in a loft at 9 East 16th Street in New York.

 

Artists and the art community responded enthusiastically to E.A.T. By 1969, given early efforts to attract engineers, the group had over 2,000 artist members as well as 2,000 engineer members willing to work with artists. Expressions of interest and requests for technical assistance came from all over the United States and Canada and from Europe, Japan, South America and elsewhere. People were encouraged to start local E.A.T. groups and about 15 to 20 were formed.

 

An ongoing Technical Services Program provided artists with access to new technology by matching them with engineers or scientists for a one-to-one collaboration on the artists’ specific projects. A part of this effort was to acquaint the technical and business communities with the artists’ needs. E.A.T. was not committed to any one technology or type of equipment such as computers or holography. The organization tried to have the artist work directly with engineers in the industrial environment where the technology was being developed. Technical Services were open to all artists with no judgment made about the aesthetic value of an artist’s project or idea. In addition, efforts were taken to team up every artist with a suitable engineer or scientist.

 

E.A.T. also initiated interdisciplinary events and projects involving artists and new technology. These projects included: 9 Evenings: Theatre and Engineering (1966); Some More Beginning (1968), the first international exhibition of art and technology, which was held at the Brooklyn Museum; and artist-engineer collaborations to design and program the Pepsi Pavilion at Expo 70 in Osaka (Japan).

 

In the seventies, emerging hardware technologies used in communications, data processing, and control and command instrumentation led to a new generation of software systems that were of great interest to artists. Realizing that artists could contribute significantly to the evolution of this software, E.A.T. generated a series of projects in which artists participated in these areas of technological development. E.A.T. undertook interdisciplinary projects that extended the artists’ activities into new areas of society.

 

Projects realized at this time included: The Anand Project (1969), which developed methods to produce instructional programming for India’s educational television through a pilot project at Anand Dairy Cooperative in Baroda (India); Telex: Q&A (1971), which linked public spaces in New York (U.S.), Ahmadabad (India), Tokyo (Japan) and Stockholm (Sweden) by telex, allowing people from different countries to question one another about the future; Children and Communication (1972), a pilot project enabling children in different parts of New York City to converse using telephone, telex and fax equipment; a pilot program (1973) to devise methods for recording indigenous culture in El Salvador; and finally a large-screen outdoor television display system (1976-1977) for the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris.

 

In 1980, to detail its activities and projects, E.A.T. put together an archive of more than 300 of its own documents: reports, catalogues, newsletters, information bulletins, proposals, lectures, announcements, and reprints of major articles. A selection of newspaper and magazine articles by others has also been included. Complete sets of this archive were distributed to major libraries in New York (U.S.), Washington (U.S.), Paris (France), Stockholm (Sweden), Moscow (Russia), Ahmadabad (India) and London (England).

 

The archive material reflects the great geographic, technical and artistic diversity of E.A.T.’s activities. Furthermore, the collection uniquely documents a vital and important moment in the history of post-war art, as well as artists’ continuing involvement with new technology in the 20th century.

Billy Klüver © 2000 FDL

 

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Johan Wilhelm (Billy) Klüver (November 13, 1927 – March 20, 2004) was an electrical engineer at Bell Telephone Laboratories who founded Experiments in Art and Technology. Klüver lectured extensively on art and technology and social issues to be addressed by the technical community. He published numerous articles on these subjects. Klüver curated (or was curatorial adviser) for fourteen major museum exhibitions in the United States and Europe. He has received the prestigious Ordre des Arts et des Lettres award from the French government.

 

 

Life

Dr. Klüver was born in Monaco, November 13, 1927, and grew up in Sweden. He graduated from the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, in Electrical Engineering. In 1952, at age 25, working for a large electronics company in France, Klüver helped install a television antenna on top of the Eiffel Tower and devised an underwater TV camera for Jacques Cousteau’s expeditions.[1]

In 1954 he came to the United States and received a Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from the University of California, Berkeley in 1957. He served as Assistant Professor of Electrical Engineering, at the University of California, Berkeley, 1957–58 and from 1958 to 1968 he was a Member of Technical Staff at Bell Telephone Laboratories in Murray Hill. He published numerous technical and scientific papers on, among others, small signal power conservation in electron beams, backward-wave magnetron amplifiers and infra-red lasers. He holds 10 patents.

Art and technology practice

In the early 1960s, Klüver began to collaborate with artists on works of art incorporating new technology, the first being kinetic art sculptor Jean Tinguely on his Homage to New York (1960), a machine that destroyed itself that was presented in the garden at MOMA. He was introduced to Jean Tinguely by Pontus Hulten, then director of the Moderna Museet, Stockholm.[2] Robert Rauschenberg also assisted on Homage to New York.

Klüver then worked on Robert Rauschenberg’s environmental sound sculpture called Oracle; and later with Yvonne Rainer on her dance in House of My Body. Klüver also worked with John Cage and Merce Cunningham on their Variations V, with Jasper Johns, inserting battery powered lights into a painting, and with Andy Warhol on Silver Clouds.

Klüver, Fred Waldhauer and artists Robert Rauschenberg and Robert Whitman collaborated in 1966 organized 9 Evenings: Theatre and Engineering, a series of performances that united artists and engineers. The performances were held in New York City’s 69th Regiment Armory, on Lexington Avenue between 25th and 26th Streets as an homage to the original and historical 1913 Armory show. Ten artists worked with more than 30 engineers to produce art performances incorporating new technology.

In 1967 he wrote a key theoretical text in the history of art and technology: Theater and Engineering – an Experiment: Notes by an Engineer.[3]

Experiments in Art and Technology (E.A.T.)[edit]

In 1966 Klüver, Robert Rauschenberg, Robert Whitman, and Fred Waldhauer founded Experiments in Art and Technology, a not-for-profit service organization for artists and engineers. Since 1968 he served as president of Experiments in Art and Technology.[4]

E.A.T. established a Technical Services Program to provide artists with technical information and assistance by matching them with engineers and scientists who can collaborate with them. In addition. E.A.T. initiates and administers interdisciplinary projects involving artists with new technology. These projects included:

The Pepsi Pavilion at Expo ’70, Osaka Japan where E.A.T. artists and engineers collaborated to design and program an immersive dome

A 1971 pilot project at Anand Dairy Cooperative, Baroda, India called “Utopia: Q&A” that consisted of public spaces linked by telex in New York, Ahmedabad, India, Tokyo, and Stockholm

A pilot program to develop methods for recording indigenous culture in El Salvador

The formation of a large screen outdoor television display system for Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris

A collaboration with artists Fujiko Nakaya (1980) and Robert Rauschenberg (1989) to design sets for the Trisha Brown Dance Company.

E.A.T. recently initiated a film restoration project to restore and edit the archival film material from 9 Evenings into ten films documenting the artists performances.

In 1972 Klüver, Barbara Rose and Julie Martin edited a book Pavilion that documented the design and construction of the Pepsi Pavilion for Expo ’70 in Osaka, Japan.

In 2001 Klüver produced an exhibition of photo and text panels entitled “The Story of E.A.T.: Experiments in Art and Technology, 1960 – 2001 by Billy Klüver.” It was first shown in Rome, then at Sonnabend Gallery in January 2002. The exhibition went to Lafayette College in the spring 2002, then to the Evolution Festival in Leeds, England, and University of Washington, in Seattle. In 2003 it traveled to San Diego State University in San Diego, California and then to a gallery in Santa Maria, California, run by Ardison Phillips who was the artist who managed the Pepsi Pavilion in 1970. From April to June 2003 a Japanese version was shown at a large exhibition at the NTT Intercommunication Center (ICC) in Tokyo which also included a number of object/artifacts and documents and E.A.T. posters, as well as works of art that Klüver and E.A.T. were involved in. A similar showing took place in Norrköping Museum of Art, Norrköping, Sweden in September 2004 and a small version was presented in 2008 at Stevens Institute of Technology.

Studies of Montparnasse[edit]

In 1978 Klüver began to work with his wife Julie Martin[5] on a research project on the evolution of the art community in Montparnasse from 1880 to 1930. In 1989 the book Kiki’s Paris was published in the United States, and subsequently appeared in France, Germany, Sweden, Spain, and Japan. Kiki was the pseudonym of Alice Prin.

Klüver and Julie Martin have edited and annotated the original English translation of Kiki’s Memoirs’, published in 1930, but banned by U.S. Customs from the United States. It was issued by Ecco Press in Fall 1996; and in French by Editions Hazan in 1998.

Klüver’s book, A Day with Picasso, published in 1997 in the U.S. (as well as in France, Germany. Brazil), was based on a group of photographs taken at lunch on a sunny afternoon in Montparnasse in 1916 by Jean Cocteau, of Pablo Picasso and Modigliani and friends. It later was published by Hakusuisha in Japan in 1999, and in Korea and Italy in 2000.

Awards and honors

In 1974 Klüver received the Order of Vasa, from the King of Sweden. In 1998 he received an honorary doctorate in Fine Arts from Parsons School of Design of the New School for Social Research and in 2002 he was named Chevalier in the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres, by the French Government.

 

 

ART AND TECHNOLOGY, 1959–98

 

Rauschenberg and engineer Billy Klüver working on Oracle (1962–65) in Rauschenberg’s Broadway studio, New York, 1965. Photo: Larry Morris/The New York Times/Redux Pictures

 

Among the collaborative ventures that brought Rauschenberg emphatically outside the confines of his studio were his experimental works in art and technology. The artist’s interest in bringing technology into his art was already evident in some of the early Combines that integrated working appliances, such as radios, fans, electric lights, and clocks, allowing sound, motion, light, and the passage of time to quite literally be incorporated into his art.

Through his participation in the Swiss artist Jean Tinguely’s kinetic environment, Homage to New York in 1960, Rauschenberg began working with Bell Laboratories research scientist, Billy Klüver. In collaboration with Klüver, Rauschenberg realized some of his most ambitious technological works, including the sound-producing sculptural environment, Oracle (1962–65), as well as Soundings (1968), a monumental light installation responsive to ambient sound. Both works were meant to be experienced by the audience spatially and appeal to the senses beyond the purely visual.

In 1966, Rauschenberg and Klüver, together with artist Robert Whitman and engineer Fred Waldhauer, founded Experiments in Art and Technology (E.A.T.), New York, an organization that sought to make technology accessible to artists by arranging collaborations with engineers. In the same year and due to their interest in the potential application of technology for theater, they produced 9 Evenings: Theater & Engineering, an event that brought together visual artists, dancers, choreographers, scientists, and engineers, which resulted in technologically sophisticated performance works.

While Rauschenberg’s preoccupation with technology-based art reached its height during the 1960s, the artist would continue to periodically utilize technology in his art making through the 1990s. Among his later technology-based works was the series Eco-Echo (1993). Made following his attendance at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, the sonar-activated windmills referred to the artist’s environmental concerns and his interest in ecologically responsible sources of power

 

 

The collaboration between Tracey Emin and Stephen Webster

Fine artist with a romantic side Tracey Emin and fine jeweler with a celeb following Stephen Webster have created a jewelry collection made in Valentine’s Day gift heaven. Set in 18K gold, the “I Promise to Love You,” collection references Emin’s iconic neon sign works and animal sketches. Bracelets, pendants, ear cuffs, earrings and rings spell out heartbreakingly lovely sayings like the collection’s namesake piece as well as “With You I Breathe,” “More Passion,” and “Love” with a heart and a kiss in Emin’s script. Emin’s figurative woodland creatures like the hare, owl, toad and kitten have been made into yellow gold charms to be worn on a necklace chain or collected onto a charm bracelet. Webster and Emin have been friends for decades, so this natural union of art and jewelry has in a way been in the works for years. “”As Tracey pointed out on my 56th birthday, we have known each other for almost 40 years. Our first encounter was at the Atlantis Disco at the entrance of Dreamland in Margate dancing to rare groove American funk being spun by a very young Pete Tong,” Webster explains, “Some two decades later we became really great friends, always conscious of our Kent roots and Tracey’s genuine gypsy heritage.” Below, Webster speaks to Emin’s art, making it into bijoux and picking favorites.

Harper’s BAZAAR: Why is Emin’s art a good fit for your jewelry?

Stephen Webster: Tracey made a neon for my Rodeo Drive store six years ago that read “I Promise To Love You” with the slogan sitting inside a heart. Tracey said she always thought ‘that’ neon belonged in a jewelry store, where people get engaged and buy wedding rings. That is a very Tracey way of looking at things. She was of course right and it was from then on that I started to look at Tracey’s work and knew that so much of it would translate perfectly into jewellery. When I made a ring for Tracey that included two depictions of her animal sketches, we both thought how amazing they looked as hand engravings into gold.

HB: What was your approach to design around the art pieces?

SW: I worked from a few of Tracey’s drawings, that I have always loved, and began to sketch what I thought might be an amazing collection. I don’t usually get stage fright but it was a lot of work on paper, and you want a positive reading. Also we kept price in mind. This is not an elitist collection. It was important to her that it wasn’t priced just for her art collectors.

Courtesy Stephen Webster

HB: What do you love about Tracey’s art?

SW: I love her most recent large scale pieces that appear to be paintings but on close study are dramatic stitched female figures.  I am also fortunate enough to own a portrait of myself that Tracey gave me in exchange for once writing her column in the Independent while she was in Australia. The piece is titled ‘David Essex or Ken Dodd’, it’s brilliant.

HB: How was it working with her given your long history?

Tracey and I have known each other for almost 40 years. She has become a really great friend, always reminiscent of our Kent roots.  Tracey and I are also god parents to one of our best friend’s, Mick Jones’ two daughters.

HB: What’s your favorite piece of Tracey’s? Did you use that piece in the collection?

SW: I have several favorite pieces but if forced to choose one it would be the ‘More Passion’ cuff. I think a cuff bracelet is a great statement piece of jewelry and when a statement actually makes a statement, it’s a potent combination that’s hard to ignore.

The “I Promise to Love You” collection hits net-a-porter.com on January 20, before launching at Stephen Webster stores on February 10.

 

 

 

Passages
Studio album by Ravi Shankar and Philip Glass
Released 1990
Genre Contemporary classicalHindustani classicalworld
Length 55:21
Label Atlantic

Passages is a collaborative chamber music studio album co-composed by Ravi Shankarand Philip Glass, released in 1990 through Atlantic Records.[1] The album’s content is a hybrid of Hindustani classical music and Glass’ distinct American minimal contemporary classical style. The album reached a peak position of number three on Billboard‘s Top World Music Albums chart.

 

 

 

 

BOOK OF LONGING
PHILIP GLASS & LEONARD COHEN

A Song Cycle based on
the Poetry and Artwork of Leonard Cohen

2007

DISC 1
1. Prologue – I Can’t Make The Hills 3:09
2. I Came Down from the Mountain 2:58
3. A Sip of Wine 8:41
4. Want to Fly 2:09
5. The Light Came Through the Window 4:10
6. Puppet Time 2:38
7. G-d Opened My Eyes 2:35
8. You Go Your Way 0:07
9. I Was Doing Something 4:19
10. Not a Jew 3:02
11. How Much I Love You 3:52
12. Babylon 5:46
13. I Enjoyed the Laughter 1:49

DISC 2
1. This Morning I Woke Up Again 5:15
2. I Want To Love You Now 5:57
3. Don’t Have The Proof 2:44
4. The Night of Santiago 5:09
5. Mother Mother 3:44
6. You Came to Me 10:27
7. I Am Now Able 3:20
8. Roshi’s Very Tired 2:38
9. Epilogue – Merely A Prayer 3:55

Credits:
Philip Glass and Musicians
Michael Riesman, Music Director and Conductor
Leonard Cohen, spoken text
Dominique Plaisant, soprano
Tara Hugo, mezzo-soprano
Will Erat, tenor
Daniel Keeling, bass-baritone
Tim Fain, violin
Philip Glass, keyboard
Megan Marolf, oboe, english horn
Eleonore Oppenheim, double bass
Michael Riesman, conductor, keyboard
Mick Rossi, keyboard, percussion
Kate St. John, oboe, english horn
Andrew Sterman, flute, piccolo, saxophones, bass clarinet
Wendy Sutter, cello

Orange Mountain Music, New York, 2007, Cat # omm0043

Photo © Lorca Cohen

“Leonard and I first began talking about a poetry and music collaboration more than six years ago. We met at that time in Los Angeles, and he had with him a manuscript that became the basis of the collection of poetry now published as the Book of Longing. In the course of an afternoon that stretched into the evening, he read virtually the whole book to me. I found the work intensely beautiful, personal, and inspiring. On the spot, I proposed an evening-length work of poetry, music, and image based on this work. Leonard liked my idea, and we agreed to begin. Now, six years later, our stars are in alignment, the book is published, and I have composed the music. For me, this work is both a departure from past work and a fulfillment of an artistic dream.”

-Philip Glass

More about the concert on this site

  • Book of Longing – Philip Glass and Leonard Cohen collaboration
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  • 2007

Philip Glass, Leonard Cohen team up in Book of

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Philip Glass, Leonard Cohen team up in Book of Longing

 

The Time Salvador Dali Worked for Walt Disney

Did you know that Disney briefly employed the world’s most famous surrealist?

Mark Mancini

Did you know that Disney briefly employed the world’s most famous surrealist?

Salvador Dali was approached by Disney himself in 1945 to propose a collaborative film. Entitled Destino, the picture would be based upon a Mexican folk song of the same name, with the music played to accompany a sequence of Dali-designed animation. The overjoyed surrealist enthusiastically agreed and quickly began sketching storyboards.

Disney’s sudden turn to surrealism was an attempt to silence several of his critics who felt that his films all too often sacrificed genuine artistry at the altar of marketability—favouring tradition and safety over innovation and experimentation. The evocative Fantasia, released in 1940, had been a groundbreaking first step on this front, and the animator now hoped that Destino would keep this newfound momentum going.

But alas, the project died in infancy and Disney pulled the plug on the film after its third month of production. Though he would remain lifelong friends with Dali afterwards, nothing remains of their short-lived joint venture but a 15-second demo reel and a handful of rudimentary sketches.

However, some 54 years later, the development of Fantasia’s long-awaited sequel, Fantasia 2000, inspired Disney’s nephew, Roy, to finally revive the project. A team of French animators were brought on board to produce the six-minute film on the basis of Dali’s notes and storyboards. In 2003, his musical vision was released at long last. Their efforts are currently available on YouTube:

 

Of Course Salvador Dalí And Walt Disney Had A Beautiful Friendship …

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Picture Piece: Salvador Dalí and Walt Disney | Frieze

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Collaboration is King: Disney and Dali | Write In Color

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Collaboration is King: Disney and Dali

 

Marcel Duchamp

 

marcel duchamp and man ray

In 1915, when Marcel Duchamp accompanied Walter C. Arensberg in 1915 to visit Man Ray in Ridgefield, NJ, the two artists, meeting for the first time, played an impromptu game of tennis. Man Ray recalled with humor: “Duchamp didn�t speak English and my French was nonexistent […] so in order to have a conversation I would give a name to each pass […] and each time Duchamp would reply in English with a single word, “yes”. (Man Ray [1963], 1964, p. 63).

  • Straightaway, they seemed to be opposites in every way. The photograph of Duchamp, taken by Man Ray in 1920-1921, shows a character sharp, elegant, his profile chiseled and his body thin under his bulky overcoat. His manner of speaking was serene and his whole demeanor cerebral: an ‘éminence grise’. Man Ray on the other hand is warm and impetuous. The portrait taken of him by Alfred Stieglitz in 1915 shows the roundness of his face framed by brown curls and highlights his bright gaze. In three words: “Man Ray, n. masc., synom. de Joie, jouer, jouir [Joy, play, come]” (M. Duchamp [1975], 1994, p. 243). Not only do language and appearance separate them, their origins distinguish them as well. Duchamp, born of a notable Normandy family, received a classical education. Closely linked to his brothers and sisters, who were already recognized as artists, Marcel inherited social legitimacy and cared little for a professional career. He had “no solutions because he has no problems.” (M. Duchamp, quoted in M. Sanouillet, 1998, p. 212). Man Ray on the other hand, was the child of Russian immigrants. He was raised in a modest Brooklyn household, where he helped his parents in their garment workshop. He took drawing classes in New York City, frequented anarchist groups, and unlike Duchamp, his situation worried him. Fashion photography provided Man Ray with financial security and recognition. Man Ray had “no problems, just solutions.” (Man Ray, quoted in M. Sanouillet, ibid.)

The source for the fraternal friendship that linked the two men is to be found in their shared freedom and independence of spirit. Aside from a passion for chess, they shared a taste for the subversive and an irresistible desire to invent. Intellectually, their processes were similar. As art terrorists, they both knew how to place mines under artistic conventions, and their works, without being similar, nevertheless responded to the other. One can hardly evoke Man Ray�s objects without, in the background, projecting the shadow of Duchamp�s ready-mades. In fact, Man Ray�s taste for using objects and experimenting with language came from Duchamp. During the 1913 Armory Show, Man Ray remarked that Nu descendant un escalier might have gone unnoticed if it had a different title. “And that gave me an idea, so that after that time I always gave titles to my objects. They don�t explain the work, but they add what you could call a literary element that goads the spirit.& (Man Ray photographe, 1981, p. 36).

 

artnet Galleries: Portrait on Man Ray and Marcel Duchamp by Henri …

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artnet Galleries: Portrait on Man Ray and Marcel Duchamp by Henri Cartier-Bresson from James Goodman Gallery | z e l f p o r t r e t /tomtom | Pinterest …

 

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Marcel Duchamp, ‘Rrose Sélavy’, from a 1921 series of photographs by Man

 

 

In this class we have learned how two different artists can come together to create a new work of art. Some times they pieces they create can be strange but wonderful at the same time, in other cases what is created is amazing. The above is some research i have done on the subject and i have really enjoyed finding out about it.

I am also in the process of collaborating with two other students to create a piece of work, it is very exciting and i cannot wait to find out what we as a collective group come up with.

ALL RESEARCH TAKEN FROM GOOGLE SEARCH/IMAGES

Enjoy the read !!!!!!

 

Collaboration Proposal

This year I have been given the opportunity to collaborate with other students. After some time students from not only Inverness but also Perth Colleges have split into groups to create a collaboration with each group.

I am with Olga Beaton and Mariea Turner. We as a group are going to be creating a piece of clothing which is hand made. Mariea loves to make random patterned material, so because of this, I had a thought when we were talking on social media of an afghan type top to make from the material. Mariea will dye the material and I will make the piece up and the crochet detail and Olga will be photographing as we go along. If Olga cannot get photographs Mariea and myself will both take them and give them to Olga to make up the book.

Firstly, in this process Mariea will be dying the material which will be transformed into the piece. Once this is completed she will then send the material to myself and I will make up the piece, by cutting material to shape and pinning for stitching. I will then crochet the detail which will be added to the piece. As each of the stages I will be completing is done I will be photographing them as I go along if I am not with Olga as then we still have a record of what happened to the material.

I think the aim of this collaboration to me, is to show that craft can also be an art form. Using these skills to create something beautiful to look at which can also be worn. There has always been this thin line between art and craft and I as an artist see craft as an art form of its own. Art doesn’t just need to be on a canvas it can be everywhere and can be anything, using craft techniques to create art has always been on this earth as far back as the beginning of the human race, and will continue to be a part of everyday life, from the cave men who used craft to create the tools they used to the clothes they wore to the paintings they left behind all came from a very very early form of craft, and without this we would know nothing about our past as a human race.  To quilting artists and people like Alexandra Kehayoglou who creates wonderful landscapes in carpets which are hand crafted, and to Magda Sayeg who is the founder of yarn bombing which is an amazing form of art that is taken to everyone and involves craft to make it. These artists have changed how we see craft and changed it into an art form and therefore we are collaborating to do the piece we are all doing.

Using craft as art and showing how it can be used as art is a good way to try and break down the barrier of people’s thoughts of what art is and what it can be.

 

Sheila Annal

 

 

 

 

Practical Skills Class

The Garden before and after .

This year saw myself and my partner and his son change the front garden from plane grass to something a little more colourful. After making a couple of drawings we all decided on the above shape. As you can imagine there was and will be hard work involved changing it from the plane green mass we had. By using a stick and a piece of sting and a tape measure, we got the centre of the garden. We the marked this out and proceeded to take the turf off and dig the garden over, (this took about a month by hand). After digging over the garden i then started planting with flowers which i hoped would attract the wild life such as bees and butterflies. Using not only shrubs but perennials and climbing plants which will hopefully cover the fences eventually , we created a garden to smile about.

Over the summer months being able to sit and watch the glorious colours from the flowers opening one by one it really inspired me to create a piece of art which would make me smile . This is how the piece photosynthesis=Beauty  came about. I have now completed this piece and it really has worked well using my knitting ,painting and crochet skills to create this colourful piece. I hope you enjoy looking at it .

Photosynthesis = Beauty

The following is a piece i’m working on for my practical class in college. I’m using my skills i have learnt as a crafter to create a canvas with a difference.

Using my knitting and crochet techniques i have created  flowers and mandalas to  represent the flowers i see when my garden in is bloom.

Hopefully the piece will show my love of flowers and nature.

My inspiration comes from my garden which i have planted full this year of flowering plant which, will attract wild life such as bees,butterflies and all sorts of insects. As an artist as well as a gardener i have tried to create a habitat which will suit insects etc., as we need these species to live and breath as they are pollinators.

The following is a few photo’s of inspiration and also the work as it happens. I hope you enjoy looking at them as much as i do !!!!!!!!!!!

Keep your eyes peeled for the next update as you might like it thanks for reading this . !!!!!!

Practical Skills Class with Mark lomax

Research of my subject Conservation and my use of wool

all information was found online via Google search/images

This subject is close to my heart as it is really important that we learn to look after the planet and everything on it.If we don’t then we just would not be here as we would as a species be unable to survive. When people talk about the ring of life its not just making sure our human race survives by having the next generation , it also means that we need to make sure our planet survives also everything from animals to the natural world.  I truly believe that if we all pull together as one collective we can and will save our planet. It does not take a lot just everyone doing little and often and we could help to stop the global warming etc. Take time out to think once you have read the following information and then hopefully you will c how you could also help and do your bit for the plant.

I myself up-cycle,recycle and reuse everything, to create art pieces, if i can give it another reason and use i will. From old curtains turned into cushions to scraps of wool turned into soft toys and mandalas. Every little you do will help to save and protect the planet. This should be the rule of thumb of future generations so they can live long and prosperous lives , along side nature and the wild life.

So as you can see this is my subject for this year in college and if i can even get one more person to help re-cycle,up-cycle and re-use then i think i will have succeeded in helping the planet and so will the person.

This is my objective in life to help to save the planet.

Enjoy !!!!

Conservation

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Conservation is the ethical use and protection of valuable resources, such as trees, minerals, wildlife, water and others. It focuses on maintaining the natural world in order to protect the sources of resources. Conservation may refer to:

Conservation (ethic) of biodiversity, environment, and natural resources, including protection and management

Conservation-restoration of cultural heritage, protection and restoration of cultural heritage, including works of art and architecture, as well as archaeological and historical artifacts

Conservation law, measurable property of isolated physical system that does not change as the system evolves, including conservation of energy, mass, momentum, electric charge, subatomic particles, and fundamental symmetries

 

Characteristics or traits subject to conservation

Conserved quantity, in mathematics, a function of dependent variables that remains constant

Conserved trait, in evolution, a phenotypic expression that is similar or identical through time as the result of natural selection

Conserved sequence, similar or identical sequences of nucleic acids, proteins, protein structures, or polymeric carbohydrates

Conservation (psychology), learning development of logical thinking, according to Jean Piaget

Conserved name (Latin nomen conservandum), a scientific name with specific nomenclatural protection

Economics and Law – Conservation Law – Conservation Property Rights[edit]

Conservation economics (Environmental economics), economics of conservation of the environment and natural resources

Conservation law (Environmental law), law concerning conservation of the environment and resources; see also conservation property rights

 

 

image: http://cdn2.business2community.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/upcycling-800×600.jpg

Image credit: love2upcyling.blogspot.com

Some consider upcycling just a passing fad, but we hope this trend is here to stay – and why wouldn’t it? It’s a practice of turning things people would throw away into something beautiful and useful. It’s an improved form of recycling that, instead of breaking down the materials, uses them in their original form, giving them a new purpose and a much better quality.

As it has become insanely popular, entrepreneurs throughout the world are setting up upcycling businesses. These business ideas are usually divided into 3 groups: creating upcycled products, reselling them and collecting materials that will be used for future upcycling. Both freelances and big shots in the business world are equally acknowledging the upcycling benefits.

Let’s see the main pros of the upcycling businesses that will inspire you to set up your own.

#1 It’s good for the environment

Upcycling is a great green practice for several reasons: there’s less trash in landfills, the air and water pollution are reduced and last, but not the least important – it sets an example for the others.  It raises the environmental awareness, teaches us about green living, inspiring us to venture into upcycling – with or without significant financial benefits. These green ideas spread quickly to the large companies as well.

“Zero waste” is one of the latest practices in manufacture, deriving from the idea of sending “zero” amount of waste to landfill. These are all great news for the environment as all branches of industry are making a special effort to lower the consumption of raw materials.

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#2 You can make money from trash

Let’s be honest – financial benefit is probably the main motivation for most people who are into upcycling. When we say “financial benefit”, we don’t think of nickels and dimes, but serious money.

Companies are buying waste at low cost, using it to create products and sell them at extremely high prices, because of their aesthetic and environmental value. Even if they don’t upcycle, they can earn a lot just by selling their trash instead of paying someone to take it to a landfill.

Not only large companies enjoy these upcycling benefits. Artists and craftsmen can earn huge profits by “turning trash into treasure” while they pay next to nothing for their materials.

#3 It boosts one`s creativity

Creative work brings great joy – what’s better than immersing yourself in a fun hobby that can bring you some money as well? When it comes to creativity in upcycling, only the sky’s the limit. If you lack inspiration, you can always look at some upcycling ideas on the internet. After a while, your own, unique ideas will start popping into your head and don’t be afraid to turn them into a reality. They vary from quite simple ones such as repurposing CD holder into bagel storage to creating jewelry from zippers. This creative aspect and the fact that anything is possible is one of the greatest upcycling benefits.

#4 You get to keep the objects you love

If you’re a kind of person who feels nostalgic and don’t want to throw your old items to trash – you may turn into a real hoarder. Upcycling is a practice that solves this problem – you get to keep your precious items by increasing their practical value and creating something you actually need. This way, your favorite trinket will be actually used instead of gathering dust somewhere in the attic.

We realize that it may not be practical or easy to turn every single item into something entirely different. However, if nothing else – you can repair and refurbish them and make them functional again, instead of wasting money on buying another, completely identical item.

#5 You get to be your own boss

Many big businesses have picked up the idea of upcycling, but it doesn’t mean you can’t have your own, small green business.  That way, you can enjoy both the upcycling benefits and pros of a freelance, work-from-home job: freedom and flexibility. Although it can be quite challenging, being your own boss has innumerable benefits.

No more bosses – you do what you want, where you want and when you want. Most individuals who are into upcycling are creating products and selling them online via websites such as ArtFire.com and Etsy.com. Visit them and uncover a real treasury of wonderful products crafted from things you would otherwise consider a trash.

Let these handicrafts inspire you and try to create some of your own!

The Positive Impacts of Upcycling

August 14th, 2012 | By Ana Yglesias

The term upcycling is relatively new, as it was coined in 1994 by Reiner Pilz, stating that “what we need is upcycling where old products are given more value not less.” Upcycling is similar to recycling in that it helps create less garbage, thus minimizing environmental impact, yet it differs in that it involves giving something old a new use. For example, Terracycle asks people to recycle their old food wrappers (and pays them for it!), which they then upcycle into new, usable goods, such as a backpack or notebook. This type of production highlights the idea of “cradle to cradle,” or the eradication of the idea of waste. Upcycling helps lessen the amount of waste going into landfills.

Photo courtesy of Treasure Again on Etsy

The term upcycling is relatively new, as it was coined in 1994 by Reiner Pilz, stating that “what we need is upcycling where old products are given more value not less.” Upcycling is similar to recycling in that it helps create less garbage, thus minimizing environmental impact, yet it differs in that it involves giving something old a new use. For example, Terracycle asks people to recycle their old food wrappers (and pays them for it!), which they then upcycle into new, usable goods, such as a backpack or notebook. This type of production highlights the idea of “cradle to cradle,” or the eradication of the idea of waste. Upcycling helps lessen the amount of waste going into landfills.

Upcycling helps reduce CO2 emissions by using old materials instead of new ones. In fact, for every ton of discarded textiles used again, 20 tons of CO2 is prevented from entering the atmosphere. Upcycling also saves you money, as it allows you to find new uses for old clothes that no longer fit or the like. It also promotes sustainable innovation and creativity, and can provide fun crafting time. Finally, it helps preserve our precious resources.

Get bit by the upcycling bug and enter No Impact Project’s Back to School Upcycling Contest by posting on their Facebook walluntil August 19th. Get inspired by ideas there as well as on our Environmental Sustainability Pinterest Board, updated weekly with fun ways to lessen your impact on the planet.

 

 

Sustainability Starts with You

Pachamama Alliance’s 2-Hour online course, Awakening the Dreamer, is a transformative educational program that explores the challenges facing humanity at this critical moment in time and the opportunities we as a human family have to create a new future.

Section 1: Get to know the Four Questions that are the framework of the course.

Section 2: Examine the environmental, social, and spiritual crises that humanity now faces.

Section 3: Recognize the powerful, unconscious assumptions of the modern world.

 

 

Pros & Cons of Upcycling

Before getting into the intrinsic benefits and drawbacks of upcycling, it is important to firstly gain a clear understanding as to what exactly is the concept & idea of ‘upcycling’. A term first coined by Reiner Pilz (1994) where he argues that recycling is more like ‘downcycling’ that you degrade the value of something to lesser. Instead he promotes the idea of upcycling ‘where old products are given more value, not less’.

So in basic words it is making use of waste or non-useful products and making something purposeful or improving a current product’s energy efficiency, thereby lessening its environmental impact. So simple examples of this are when old non used items such as an old guitar case becomes a book shelf or file cabinets that are built from suitcases. Although upcycling is a specific form of recycling, it is different in the fact you don’t break the useless product down into its raw form, you simply give it a new improved use — with effective alterations & add-ons.

 

 

 

Artist Statement

I have largely researched and studied nature and the natural environment, as this is my inspiration for all my work.  The environment, in the area in which I live, is my main inspiration. From the trees to the hills to the rivers. Each area has its own special thought and feeling for me, how something so beautiful can be made by mother nature. And so, because of this I have considered it and researched it many times, to create my art. I work with textiles, mixed media and paint and enjoy everything I create I have also recently started to use wool and knitting and crochet in my work to create the image I have in my head. Over the past years, I have been given the opportunity to obtain new skills, which I did not have such as IT, which I have been able to use in my work, also via digital photography.

In the past I have created paintings and captured moments in time that I don’t want to forget, I have created videos with still images in them, to put my ideas across that looking after the landscape and the environment is a good thing and should be taken care of for the future generations to love and enjoy and cherish. I have worked on a personal project about unseen illnesses’, two of which I suffer from, and what it does to you as a human being. This project was to raise awareness of these unseen illnesses ‘as although u cannot see them and the person suffering from them, looks normal deep down they are the complete opposite, and how because of this it can prejudice employers and other people against the sufferer, and how protecting nature such as trees can help to protect us as they are the lungs of the earth, and are the producers of oxygen which we need as a species to live and thrive. This project was very close to my heart as it breaks my heart to see beautiful old trees cut down and not replaced. It also showed how as a sufferer I have had to fight all my life to stay well.

At the moment, I am currently working on textile pictures. These I am making with not only paint, but also textiles and wool using my knitting and crochet techniques I have been educating myself about over the last 10 years. One of the pictures has been inspired by my love of gardening and my front garden (which I finally managed to get started this year), that is my inspiration for it. Taking photos, of the garden as it was a work in progress showed me how beautiful it finally was when I was finished for this year. Using the plants, I have used has created not only colour but scent and has attracted the insects, bees and butterfly’s birds back to the garden and these are essential to life, as they are pollinators and are needed to pollinate not only the flowers but also the plants and trees of the surrounding area. I am also working on a painting with a difference, this painting will have not only a scene painted in the back ground but also a 3D image on the front of a tree. This will be to emphasize the importance of the tree no matter how mundane it may seem they are essential to life. I am also working now on a textile peace which shows the beauty of flower’s, and this is made totally from upcycled textiles, which I have obtained via charity shops, as I think it is good to reuse and not throw away. I will also be making one more which will consist of an acorn which is knitted and attached to a canvas to show the start of the life of a tree, this will also have a painted background. I have also created a picture made from material and which I have embroidered detail into to create a winter sunrise as they are one of mother nature’s more beautiful sights and I love them. Using upcycled textiles is in my part of helping to look after the planet, and giving to charity for those less fortunate than myself, as well as recycling as much as is possible which I do on a regular basis.  All the pieces I call my art has this message attached to them as the more we do the better the planet will be and conserving what we as a race have is the best way to go in my opinion.

There is one project this year I’m excited about and it is a collaboration with two other students one from Inverness and one from Perth college. As a collective, we will be taking each of our skills and adding them together to create a piece of art work. This will show how all the different techniques and skills as a collective come together to create one piece. It will give a small history of a piece of cloth. This book, we can then have a copy each of what we achieved as a group.

As for the future, I don’t know where it will take me but if I can keep pushing my messages about conservation and protection of the planet across, I will be happy. I would love to be able to open a community centre, in the area in which I live as there are so many new families and nothing here for them. If it were to happen I would be delighted as I would be giving back to the community in which I was brought up, by passing on my knowledge and techniques I have attained over many years. It would be a place where not only the children, but also all generations would be able to come to, and meet with each other and talk and play and maybe the older generation could help the younger generation to also appreciate what they have, and help to show them how to take care of it, and make sure it survives for future generations to come. I would also have classes to pass on what I know and this would hopefully enhance the future generations, to become more independent. By showing them and educating them to make do and mend and upcycle to give the planet a chance to thrive and recover, from what damage has already been done, this would happen via the way I work. I think having the chance to improve the area and have somewhere for people to go and enjoy would help to stitch the community together as a whole. It would help to stop the elderly becoming house bound and lonely and it would help young single mums to get together and make new friends, but most of all it would help to teach people how a community should be and that working together to create thing such as this, will be a better thing for everyone now and forever more.

Sheila Annal

3rd Year BAH Degree

Mark Lomax

Practical Skills

 

Crochet
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Detail of a crocheted doily, Sweden
Crochet (English pronunciation: /kroʊˈʃeɪ/;[1] French: [kʁɔʃɛ][2]) is a process of creating fabric by interlocking loops of yarn, thread, or strands of other materials using a crochet hook.[3] The name is derived from the French term “crochet”, meaning small hook. These are made of materials such as metal, wood, or plastic and are manufactured commercially and produced in artisan workshops. The salient difference between crochet and knitting, beyond the implements used for their production, is that each stitch in crochet is completed before proceeding with the next one, while knitting keeps a large number of stitches open at a time. (Variant forms such as Tunisian crochet and broomstick lace keep multiple crochet stitches open at a time.)
Etymology

The word crochet is derived from the Old French crochet, a diminutive of croche, in turn from the Germanic croc, both meaning “hook”.[3]It was used in 17th-century French lace making, crochetage designating a stitch used to join separate pieces of lace, and crochetsubsequently designating both a specific type of fabric and the hooked needle used to produce it. Although that fabric is not known to be crochet in the present sense, a genealogical relationship between the techniques sharing that name appears likely.[4]
Origins[edit]
Knitted textiles survive from early periods but the first substantive evidence of crocheted fabric relates to its appearance in Europe during the 19th century.[5] Earlier work identified as crochet was commonly made by nålebinding, a separate looped yarn technique.

A crocheted purse described in 1823 in Penélopé.
The first known published instructions for crochet appeared in the Dutch magazine, Penélopé, in 1823. This includes a color plate showing five different style purses of which three were intended to be crocheted with silk thread.[6] The first is “simple open crochet” (crochet simple ajour), a mesh of chain-stitch arches. The second (illustrated here) starts in a semi-open form (demi jour), where chain-stitch arches alternate with equally long segments of slip-stitch crochet, and closes with a star made with “double-crochet stitches” (dubbelde hekelsteek— double-crochet in British terminology; single-crochet in US).[7] The third purse is made entirely in double-crochet. The instructions prescribe the use of a tambour needle (as illustrated below) and introduce a number of decorative techniques.

The earliest dated English reference to garments made of cloth produced by looping yarn with a hook — shepherd’s knitting — is in, The Memoirs of a Highland Lady, by Elizabeth Grant (1797–1830). The journal entry, itself, is dated 1812 but was not recorded in its subsequently published form until some time between 1845 and 1867, and the actual date of publication was first in 1898.[8] Nonetheless, the 1833 volume of Penélopé describes and illustrates a shepherd’s hook, and recommends its use for crochet with coarser yarn.[9]

In 1842, one of the numerous books discussing crochet that began to appear in the 1840s states:
“Crochet needles, sometimes called Shepherds’ hooks, are made of steel, ivory, or box-wood. They have a hook at one end similar in shape to a fish-hook, by which the wool or silk is caught and drawn through the work. These instruments are to be procured of various sizes…”[10]

Two years later, the same author, writes:
“Crochet, — a species of knitting originally practised by the peasants in Scotland, with a small hooked needle called a shepherd’s hook, — has, within the last seven years, aided by taste and fashion, obtained the preference over all other ornamental works of a similar nature. It derives its present name from the French; the instrument with which it is worked being by them, from its crooked shape, termed ‘crochet.’ This art has attained its highest degree of perfection in England, whence it has been transplanted to France and Germany, and both countries, although unjustifiably, have claimed the invention.”[11]
An instruction book from 1846 describes Shepherd or Single Crochet as what in current British usage is either called single crochet or slip-stitch crochet, with U.S. American terminology always using the latter (reserving single crochet for use as noted above).[12] It similarly equates “Double” and “French crochet”.[13]

Tambour embroidery in the Diderot Encyclopedia
Notwithstanding the categorical assertion of a purely British origin, there is solid evidence of a connection between French tambour embroidery and crochet. The former method of production was illustrated in detail in 1763 in Diderot’s Encyclopedia. The tip of the needle shown there is indistinguishable from that of a present-day inline crochet hook and the chain stitch separated from a cloth support is a fundamental element of the latter technique. The 1824 Penélopé instructions unequivocally state that the tambour tool was used for crochet and the first of the 1840s instruction books uses the terms tambour and crochet as synonyms.[14] This equivalence is retained in the 4th edition of that work, 1847.[15]

Shepherd’s hook, 19th-century tapered hook, modern inline hook
The strong taper of the shepherd’s hook eases the production of slip-stitch crochet but is less amenable to stitches that require multiple loops on the hook at the same time. Early yarn hooks were also continuously tapered but gradually enough to accommodate multiple loops. The design with a cylindrical shaft that is commonplace today was largely reserved for tambour-style steel needles. Both types gradually merged into the modern form that appeared toward the end of the 19th century, including both tapered and cylindrical segments, and the continuously tapered bone hook remained in industrial production until World War II.
The early instruction books make frequent reference to the alternate use of ‘ivory, bone, or wooden hooks’ and ‘steel needles in a handle’, as appropriate to the stitch being made. Taken with the synonymous labeling of shepherd’s- and single crochet, and the similar equivalence of French- and double crochet, there is a strong suggestion that crochet is rooted both in tambour embroidery and shepherd’s knitting, leading to thread and yarn crochet respectively; a distinction that is still made. The locus of the fusion of all these elements — the “invention” noted above — has yet to be determined, as does the origin of shepherd’s knitting.
Shepherd’s hooks are still being made for local slip-stitch crochet traditions. The form in the accompanying photograph is typical for contemporary production. A longer continuously tapering design intermediate between it and the 19th-century tapered hook was also in earlier production, commonly being made from the handles of forks and spoons.

 

Irish crochet

Detail of a Portuguese crochet table-cloth, about 1970

Irish crochet lace, late 19th century. The design of this example is closely based on Flemish needle lace of the 17th century.
In the 19th century, as Ireland was facing the Great Irish Famine (1845-1849), crochet lace work was introduced as a form of famine relief[16] (the production of crocheted lace being an alternative way of making money for impoverished Irish workers).[17] Mademoiselle Riego de la Blanchardiere is generally credited with the invention of Irish Crochet, publishing the first book of patterns in 1846. Irish lace became popular in Europe and America, and was made in quantity until the first World War.[18]
Modern practice and culture[edit]
Fashions in crochet changed with the end of the Victorian era in the 1890s. Crocheted laces in the new Edwardian era, peaking between 1910 and 1920, became even more elaborate in texture and complicated stitching.

Filet crochet by an internee at ManzanarWar Relocation Center, 1943. Photograph by Ansel Adams
The strong Victorian colours disappeared, though, and new publications called for white or pale threads, except for fancy purses, which were often crocheted of brightly colored silk and elaborately beaded. After World War I, far fewer crochet patterns were published, and most of them were simplified versions of the early 20th-century patterns. After World War II, from the late 1940s until the early 1960s, there was a resurgence in interest in home crafts, particularly in the United States, with many new and imaginative crochet designs published for colorful doilies, potholders, and other home items, along with updates of earlier publications. These patterns called for thicker threads and yarns than in earlier patterns and included wonderful variegated colors. The craft remained primarily a homemaker’s art until the late 1960s and early 1970s, when the new generation picked up on crochet and popularized granny squares, a motif worked in the round and incorporating bright colors.
Although crochet underwent a subsequent decline in popularity, the early 21st century has seen a revival of interest in handcrafts and DIY, as well as great strides in improvement of the quality and varieties of yarn. There are many more new pattern books with modern patterns being printed, and most yarn stores now offer crochet lessons in addition to the traditional knitting lessons. There are many books you can purchase from local book stores to teach yourself how to crochet whether it be as a beginner or intermediate. There are also many books for children and teenagers who are hoping to take up the hobby. Filet crochet, Tunisian crochet, tapestry crochet, broomstick lace, hairpin lace, cro-hooking, and Irish crochet are all variants of the basic crochet method.

 

Crochet hook

Aluminium crochet hooks
Main article: Crochet hook
The crochet hook comes in many sizes and materials, such as bone, bamboo, aluminium, plastic, and steel. Because sizing is categorized by the diameter of the hook’s shaft, a crafter aims to create stitches of a certain size in order to reach a particular gauge specified in a given pattern. If gauge is not reached with one hook, another is used until the stitches made are the needed size. Crafters may have a preference for one type of hook material over another due to aesthetic appeal, yarn glide, or hand disorders such as arthritis, where bamboo or wood hooks are favored over metal for the perceived warmth and flexibility during use. Hook grips and ergonomic hook handles are also available to assist crafters.
Steel crochet hooks range in size from 0.4 to 3.5 millimeters, or from 00 to 16 in American sizing. These hooks are used for fine crochet work such as doilies and lace.
Aluminium, bamboo, and plastic crochet hooks are available from 2.5 to 19 millimeters in size, or from B to S in American sizing.
Artisan-made hooks are often made of hand-turned woods, sometimes decorated with semi-precious stones or beads.
Crochet hooks used for Tunisian crochet are elongated and have a stopper at the end of the handle, while double-ended crochet hooks have a hook on both ends of the handle. There is also a double hooked apparatus called a Cro-hook that has become popular.
A hairpin loom is often used to create lacy and long stitches, known as hairpin lace. While this is not in itself a hook, it is a device used in conjunction with a crochet hook to produce stitches.

Yarn

A hank of wool yarn (center) is uncoiled into its basic loop. A tie is visible at the left; after untying, the hank may be wound into a ball or balls suitable for crocheting. Crocheting from a normal hank directly is likely to tangle the yarn, producing snarls.
Yarn for crochet is usually sold as balls or skeins (hanks), although it may also be wound on spools or cones. Skeins and balls are generally sold with a yarn band, a label that describes the yarn’s weight, length, dye lot, fiber content, washing instructions, suggested needle size, likely gauge, etc. It is a common practice to save the yarn band for future reference, especially if additional skeins must be purchased. Crocheters generally ensure that the yarn for a project comes from a single dye lot. The dye lot specifies a group of skeins that were dyed together and thus have precisely the same color; skeins from different dye lots, even if very similar in color, are usually slightly different and may produce a visible stripe when added onto existing work. If insufficient yarn of a single dye lot is bought to complete a project, additional skeins of the same dye lot can sometimes be obtained from other yarn stores or online.
The thickness or weight of the yarn is a significant factor in determining the gauge, i.e., how many stitches and rows are required to cover a given area for a given stitch pattern. Thicker yarns generally require large-diameter crochet hooks, whereas thinner yarns may be crocheted with thick or thin hooks. Hence, thicker yarns generally require fewer stitches, and therefore less time, to work up a given project. Patterns and motifs are coarser with thicker yarns and produce bold visual effects, whereas thinner yarns are best for refined or delicate patternwork. Yarns are standardly grouped by thickness into six categories: superfine, fine, light, medium, bulky and superbulky. Quantitatively, thickness is measured by the number of wraps per inch (WPI). The related weight per unit length is usually measured in tex or denier.

Transformation of a hank of lavender silk yarn (top) into a ball in which the yarn emerges from the center (bottom). Using the latter is better for needlework, since the yarn is much less likely to tangle.
Before use, hanks are wound into balls in which the yarn emerges from the center, making crocheting easier by preventing the yarn from becoming easily tangled. The winding process may be performed by hand or done with a ballwinder and swift.
A yarn’s usefulness is judged by several factors, such as its loft (its ability to trap air), its resilience(elasticity under tension), its washability and colorfastness, its hand (its feel, particularly softness vs. scratchiness), its durability against abrasion, its resistance to pilling, its hairiness (fuzziness), its tendency to twist or untwist, its overall weight and drape, its blocking and felting qualities, its comfort (breathability, moisture absorption, wicking properties) and its appearance, which includes its color, sheen, smoothness and ornamental features. Other factors include allergenicity, speed of drying, resistance to chemicals, moths, and mildew, melting point and flammability, retention of static electricity, and the propensity to accept dyes. Desirable properties may vary for different projects, so there is no one “best” yarn.

The two possible twists of yarn
Although crochet may be done with ribbons, metal wire or more exotic filaments, most yarns are made by spinning fibers. In spinning, the fibers are twisted so that the yarn resists breaking under tension; the twisting may be done in either direction, resulting in a Z-twist or S-twist yarn. If the fibers are first aligned by combing them and the spinner uses a worsted type drafting method such as the short forward draw, the yarn is smoother and called a worsted; by contrast, if the fibers are carded but not combed and the spinner uses a woolen drafting method such as the long backward draw, the yarn is fuzzier and called woolen-spun. The fibers making up a yarn may be continuous filament fibers such as silk and many synthetics, or they may be staples (fibers of an average length, typically a few inches); naturally filament fibers are sometimes cut up into staples before spinning. The strength of the spun yarn against breaking is determined by the amount of twist, the length of the fibers and the thickness of the yarn. In general, yarns become stronger with more twist (also called worst), longer fibers and thicker yarns (more fibers); for example, thinner yarns require more twist than do thicker yarns to resist breaking under tension. The thickness of the yarn may vary along its length; a slub is a much thicker section in which a mass of fibers is incorporated into the yarn.
The spun fibers are generally divided into animal fibers, plant and synthetic fibers. These fiber types are chemically different, corresponding to proteins, carbohydrates and synthetic polymers, respectively. Animal fibers include silk, but generally are long hairs of animals such as sheep (wool), goat (angora, or cashmere goat), rabbit (angora), llama, alpaca, dog, cat, camel, yak, and muskox (qiviut). Plants used for fibers include cotton, flax (for linen), bamboo, ramie, hemp, jute, nettle, raffia, yucca, coconut husk, banana trees, soy and corn. Rayon and acetate fibers are also produced from cellulose mainly derived from trees. Common synthetic fibers include acrylics,[20]polyesters such as dacron and ingeo, nylon and other polyamides, and olefins such as polypropylene. Of these types, wool is generally favored for crochet, chiefly owing to its superior elasticity, warmth and (sometimes) felting; however, wool is generally less convenient to clean and some people are allergic to it. It is also common to blend different fibers in the yarn, e.g., 85% alpaca and 15% silk. Even within a type of fiber, there can be great variety in the length and thickness of the fibers; for example, Merino wool and Egyptian cotton are favored because they produce exceptionally long, thin (fine) fibers for their type.
A single spun yarn may be crochet as is, or braided or plied with another. In plying, two or more yarns are spun together, almost always in the opposite sense from which they were spun individually; for example, two Z-twist yarns are usually plied with an S-twist. The opposing twist relieves some of the yarns’ tendency to curl up and produces a thicker, balanced yarn. Plied yarns may themselves be plied together, producing cabled yarns or multi-stranded yarns. Sometimes, the yarns being plied are fed at different rates, so that one yarn loops around the other, as in bouclé. The single yarns may be dyed separately before plying, or afterwords to give the yarn a uniform look.
The dyeing of yarns is a complex art. Yarns need not be dyed; or they may be dyed one color, or a great variety of colors. Dyeing may be done industrially, by hand or even hand-painted onto the yarn. A great variety of synthetic dyes have been developed since the synthesis of indigo dye in the mid-19th century; however, natural dyes are also possible, although they are generally less brilliant. The color-scheme of a yarn is sometimes called its colorway. Variegated yarns can produce interesting visual effects, such as diagonal stripes.

 

Process

A close view of a crocheted scarf made with lace-weight mohair yarn.
Crocheted fabric is begun by placing a slip-knot loop on the hook (though other methods, such as a magic ring or simple folding over of the yarn may be used), pulling another loop through the first loop, and repeating this process to create a chain of a suitable length. The chain is either turned and worked in rows, or joined to the beginning of the row with a slip stitch and worked in rounds. Rounds can also be created by working many stitches into a single loop. Stitches are made by pulling one or more loops through each loop of the chain. At any one time at the end of a stitch, there is only one loop left on the hook. Tunisian crochet, however, draws all of the loops for an entire row onto a long hook before working them off one at a time. Like knitting, crochet can be worked either flat or in the round.
Types of stitches[edit]
There are five main types of basic stitches. 1. Chain Stitch – the most basic of all stitches and used to begin most projects. 2. Slip Stitch – used to join chain stitch to form a ring. 3. Single Crochet Stitch – easiest stitch to master Single Crochet Stitch Tutorial 4. Half Double Crochet Stitch – the ‘in-between’ stitch Half-Double Crochet Tutorial 5. Double Crochet Stitch – many uses for this unlimited use stitch Double Crochet Stitch Tutorial hile the horizontal distance covered by these basic stitches is the same, they differ in height and thickness.
The more advanced stitches are often combinations of these basic stitches, or are made by inserting the hook into the work in unusual locations. More advanced stitches include the Shell Stitch, V Stitch, Spike Stitch, Afghan Stitch, Butterfly Stitch, Popcorn Stitch, Cluster stitch, and Crocodile Stitch.[21]

 

International crochet terms and notations

Some crochet symbols, abbreviations, and US/UK terms
In the English-speaking crochet world, basic stitches have different names that vary by country. The differences are usually referred to as UK/US or British/American. To help counter confusion when reading patterns, a diagramming system using a standard international notation has come into use (illustration, left).
Another terminological difference is known as tension (UK) and gauge (US). Individual crocheters work yarn with a loose or a tight hold and, if unmeasured, these differences can lead to significant size changes in finished garments that have the same number of stitches. In order to control for this inconsistency, printed crochet instructions include a standard for the number of stitches across a standard swatch of fabric. An individual crocheter begins work by producing a test swatch and compensating for any discrepancy by changing to a smaller or larger hook. North Americans call this gauge, referring to the end result of these adjustments; British crocheters speak of tension, which refers to the crafter’s grip on the yarn while producing stitches.
Differences from and similarities to knitting[edit]
One of the more obvious differences is that crochet uses one hook while much knitting uses two needles. In most crochet, the artisan usually has only one live stitch on the hook (with the exception being Tunisian crochet), while a knitter keeps an entire row of stitches active simultaneously. Dropped stitches, which can unravel a fabric, rarely interfere with crochet work, due to a second structural difference between knitting and crochet. In knitting, each stitch is supported by the corresponding stitch in the row above and it supports the corresponding stitch in the row below, whereas crochet stitches are only supported by and support the stitches on either side of it. If a stitch in a finished crocheted item breaks, the stitches above and below remain intact, and because of the complex looping of each stitch, the stitches on either side are unlikely to come loose unless heavily stressed.
Round or cylindrical patterns are simple to produce with a regular crochet hook, but cylindrical knitting requires either a set of circular needles or three to five special double-ended needles. Many crocheted items are composed of individual motifs which are then joined together, either by sewing or crocheting, whereas knitting is usually composed of one fabric, such as entrelac.
Freeform crochet is a technique that can create interesting shapes in three dimensions because new stitches can be made independently of previous stitches almost anywhere in the crocheted piece. It is generally accomplished by building shapes or structural elements onto existing crocheted fabric at any place the crafter desires.
Knitting can be accomplished by machine, while many crochet stitches can only be crafted by hand. The height of knitted and crocheted stitches is also different: a single crochet stitch is twice the height of a knit stitch in the same yarn size and comparable diameter tools, and a double crochet stitch is about four times the height of a knit stitch.[22]
While most crochet is made with a hook, there is also a method of crocheting with a knitting loom. This is called loomchet.[23] Slip stitch crochet is very similar to knitting. Each stitch in slip stitch crochet is formed the same way as a knit or purl stitch which is then bound off. A person working in slip stitch crochet can follow a knitted pattern with knits, purls, and cables, and get a similar result.[24]
It is a common perception that crochet produces a thicker fabric than knitting, tends to have less “give” than knitted fabric, and uses approximately a third more yarn for a comparable project than knitted items. Though this is true when comparing a single crochet swatch with a stockinette swatch, both made with the same size yarn and needle/hook, it is not necessarily true for crochet in general. Most crochet uses far less than 1/3 more yarn than knitting for comparable pieces, and a crocheter can get similar feel and drape to knitting by using a larger hook or thinner yarn. Tunisian crochet and slip stitch crochet can in some cases use less yarn than knitting for comparable pieces. According to sources[25] claiming to have tested the 1/3 more yarn assertion, a single crochet stitch (sc) uses approximately the same amount of yarn as knit garter stitch, but more yarn than stockinette stitch. Any stitch using yarnovers uses less yarn than single crochet to produce the same amount of fabric. Cluster stitches, which are in fact multiple stitches worked together, will use the most length.
Standard crochet stitches like sc and dc also produce a thicker fabric, more like knit garter stitch. This is part of why they use more yarn. Slip stitch can produce a fabric much like stockinette that is thinner and therefore uses less yarn.
It is possible to use the same yarn or wool for both crochet and knitting, providing you have the correct size knitting needles or crochet hooks for the yarn you are using. There are some yarn that are only made for crochet, for example DMC make Cebelia No.10[26] which is a very thin yarn and works well with Amigurumi crochet.[27]

 

Differences between crochet and knitting

Most crochet uses one hook and works upon one stitch at a time. Crochet may be worked in circular rounds without any specialized tools, as shown here.


Knitting uses two or more straight needles that carry multiple stitches.


Unlike crochet, knitting requires specialized needles to create circular rounds.
Charity[edit]
It has been very common for people and groups to crochet clothing and other garments and then donate them to soldiers during war. People have also crocheted clothing and then donated it to hospitals, for sick patients and also for newborn babies. Sometimes groups will crochet for a specific charity purpose, such as crocheting for homeless shelters, nursing homes, etc. It is also becoming increasingly popular to crochet hats (commonly referred to as “chemo caps”) and donate them to cancer treatment centers, for those undergoing chemotherapy. During the month of October pink hats and scarves are made and proceeds are donated to breast cancer funds.
Mathematics and hyperbolic crochet[edit]

A collection of crocheted hyperbolic planes, in imitation of a coral reef.
Crochet has been used to illustrate shapes in hyperbolic space that are difficult to reproduce using other media or are difficult to understand when viewed two-dimensionally. A hyperbolic model of a coral reef has also been constructed for environmental purposes.[28]
A paper model based on the pseudosphere was created by William Thurston, however, it was quite delicate. Crochet has been used by the mathematician Daina Taimina in order to create a version of the hyperbolic plane. Daina Taimina used the art of crochet to create a strong, durable model (see related image), which received an exhibition by the Institute For Figuring.[28]
As hyperbolic and mathematics-based crochet has continued to become more popular, there have been several events highlighting work from various fiber artists. Two such shows include Sant Ocean Hall at the Smithsonian in Washington D.C. and Sticks, Hooks, and the Mobius: Knit and Crochet Go Cerebralat Lafayette College in Pennsylvania.
Architecture[edit]
In Style in the technical arts, Gottfried Semper looks at the textile with great promise and historical precedent. In Section 53, he writes of the “loop stitch, or Noeud Coulant: a knot that, if untied, causes the whole system to unravel.” In the same section, Semper confesses his ignorance of the subject of crochet but believes strongly that it is a technique of great value as a textile technique and possibly something more.
There are a small number of architects currently interested in the subject of crochet as it relates to architecture. The following publications, explorations and thesis projects can be used as a resource to see how crochet is being used within the capacity of architecture.
• Emergent Explorations: Analog and Digital Scripting – Alexander Worden
• Research and Design: The Architecture of variation – Lars Spuybroek
• YurtAlert – Kate Pokorny

 

Yarn bombing

In the past few years, a practice called yarn bombing, or the use of knitted or crocheted cloth to modify and beautify one’s (usually outdoor) surroundings, emerged in the US and spread worldwide.[29] Yarn bombers sometimes target existing pieces of graffiti for beautification. In 2010, an entity dubbed “the Midnight Knitter” hit West Cape May. Residents awoke to find knit cozies hugging tree branches and sign poles.[30] In September 2015, Grace Brett was named “The World’s Oldest Yarn Bomber”. She is part of a group of yarn graffiti-artists called the Souter Stormers, who beautify their local town in Scotland. When she is not yarn bombing, she is utilizing her craft by making items for her children and grandchildren.

Early origins of knitting

Knitting is a technique of producing fabric from a strand of yarn or wool. Unlike weaving, knitting does not require a loom or other large equipment, making it a valuable technique for nomadic and non-agrarian peoples.
The oldest knitted artifacts are socks from Egypt, dating from the 11th century CE.[2] They are a very fine gauge, done with complex colorwork and some have a short row heel, which necessitates the purl stitch. These complexities suggest that knitting is even older than the archeological record can prove.[3]
Earlier pieces having a knitted or crocheted appearance have been shown to be made with other techniques, such as Nålebinding, a technique of making fabric by creating multiple loops with a single needle and thread, much like sewing.[4] Some artifacts have a structure so similar to knitting, for example, 3rd-5th century CE Romano-Egyptian toe-socks, that it is thought the “Coptic stitch” of nalbinding is the forerunner to knitting.
Most histories of knitting place its origin somewhere in the Middle East, and from there it spread to Europe by Mediterranean trade routes and later to the Americas with European colonization.

 

Early European Knitting

The earliest known knitted items in Europe were made by Muslim knitters employed by Spanish Christian royal families. Their high level of knitting skill can be seen in several items found in the tombs in the Abbey of Santa María la Real de Las Huelgas, a royal monastery, near Burgos, Spain. Among them are the knitted cushion covers and gloves found in the tomb of Prince Fernando de la Cerda, who died in 1275. The silk cushion cover was knit at approximately 20 stitches per inch. It included knit patterns reflecting the family armory, as well as the word baraka (“blessings”) in Arabic in stylized Kufic script.[6][7] Numerous other knit garments and accessories, also dating from the mid-13th century, have been found in cathedral treasuries in Spain.
There also is a Votic knit fragment dated to late 13th century excavated in Estonia.[8] This fragment is knit in a stranded pattern in three colors and was likely part of a mitten cuff.

Madonna Knitting, by Bertram of Minden 1400-1410
Several paintings from Europe portray the Virgin Mary knitting and date from the 14th century, including Our Lady Knitting by Tommaso da Modena (circa 1325-1375) and Visit of the Angel, from the right wing of the Buxtehude Altar, 1400–10, by Master Bertram of Minden.[6] These paintings show no knitting pattern; the earliest known knitting pattern was published in 1524.[9]
Archaeological finds from medieval cities all over Europe, such as London,[10] Newcastle,[11] Oslo,[12]Amsterdam,[13] and Lübeck,[14] as well as tax lists, prove the spread of knitted goods for everyday use from the 14th century onward. Like many archaeological textiles, most of the finds are only fragments of knitted items so that in most cases their former appearance and use is unknown. One of the exceptions is a 14th or 15th century woollen child’s cap from Lübeck.[14]
Although the purl stitch was used in some of the earliest knitted items in Egypt, its knowledge may have been lost in Europe. The first European purl stitches appear in the mid-16th century, in the red silk stockings in which Eleanora de Toledo, wife of Cosimo de Medici, was buried, and which also include the first lacy patterns made by yarn-overs,[15][16] but the technique may have been developed slightly earlier. The English Queen Elizabeth Iherself favored silk stockings;[17] these were finer, softer, more decorative and much more expensive than those of wool. Stockings reputed to have belonged to her still exist, demonstrating the high quality of the items specifically knitted for her. During this era the manufacture of stockings was of vast importance to many Britons, who knitted with fine wool and exported their wares. Knitting schools were established as a way of providing an income to the poor. The fashion of the period, requiring men to wear short trunks, made fitted stockings a fashion necessity. Stockings made in England were sent to the Netherlands, Spain, and Germany.[citation needed]
Importance in Scottish history[edit]

1855 sketch of a shepherd knitting, while watching his flock.
Knitting was such an important occupation among those living on the Scottish Isles during the 17th and 18th centuries that whole families were involved in making sweaters, accessories, socks, stockings, etc.[18] Fair Isle techniques were used to create elaborate colorful patterns. Sweaters were essential garments for the fishermen of these islands because the natural oils within the wool provided some element of protection against the harsh weather encountered while out fishing.
Many elaborate designs were developed, such as the cable stitch used on Aran sweaters, which was developed in the early 20th century in Ireland.
Industrial Revolution[edit]
The stocking frame or mechanical knitting machine was invented in 1589 and subsequently improved. The Worshipful Company of Framework Knitters was incorporated in 1657 London. Framework knitting was predominantly performed at home, often with the entire family participating.[19]
The city of Nottingham, particularly the district known as Lace Market, was a major producer of machine-knitted lace. Leicestershire and neighboring counties had long had an association with the hosiery industry. This continued particularly growing with the invention of portable circular knitting machines.[citation needed] Machines could be hired and worked from home rather than relying on a large stocking frame or the much slower hand knitting. One manufacturer of these machines was Griswold, and such work was often called Griswold work.[citation needed]

Griswold knitting machines
Some framework knitters were among the Luddites, who resisted the transition to factories. By the middle of the nineteenth century, the knitting industry had still not made the transition to factories.[20]With the improvement of steam-powered knitting machines in the mid-nineteenth century, machine knitting increasingly shifted to factories to accommodate the larger machines.
By the mid-nineteenth century, hand knitting was declining as part of the knitting industry but was increasingly a hobby.[citation needed] Printed patterns and yarn were produced for leisure as well as for industrial use by authors such as Jane Gaugain.
1920s: the Russian Civil Wars and China[edit]
After the White Russians’ defeat in the Civil War, many units retreated into China’s Xinjiang and were interned there. As China was about to descend into a civil war of its own, the Russian internees were transported by camel caravans to Eastern China. According to Owen Lattimore, it was then that they passed on the art of knitting to the Chinese caravan men, who had ready supply of camel hair from their animals. In 1926, Lattimore was able to observe camel-pullers “knitting on the march; if they ran out of yarn, they would reach back to the first camel of the file they were leading, pluck a handful of hair from the neck, and roll it in their palms into the beginning of a length of yarn; a weight was attached to this, and given a twist to start it spinning, and the man went on feeding wool into the thread until he had spun enough yarn to continue his knitting.” This way the camel men not only provided themselves with warm camel-hair socks, but were able to make knitwear for sale as well.[21]
1920s: Fashions[edit]
The 1920s saw a vast increase in the popularity of knitwear in much of the western world. Knitwear, especially sweaters/pullovers became essential part of the new fashions of the age for men, women and children, rather than mostly practical garments of associated with particular occupations (e.g., fishermen). The late teens and early 1920s saw a fashion for knitted neckties. Knitwear was often associated with sport and leisure. Garments often became associated with particular sports; for example, white sweaters/pullers, often with colored stripes (club colors) in the collar, became common for tennis and cricket.
Fair Isle knitting enjoyed a golden age during the 1920s, reputedly started by the Prince of Wales (future Edward VIII) wearing a Fair Isle pullover sweater to play golf. Both Fair Isle and Argyle styles have since been associated with the sport.
High fashion also embraced knitwear, with Coco Chanel making prominent use of it and Vogue magazine featuring patterns.
Before the 1920s, the majority of commercial knitting in the Western world had centered around production of underwear, socks and hosiery. This vastly expanded as the public taste for knitted fashion did also. Both hand and machine knitting were commercially active on a large scale prior to the Great Depression.
The 1920s saw a continuation in the growth of interest in home/hobby knitting which grew during the First World War. Conditions of trench warfare lead to a shortage of socks in particular, and the Allied home front was encouraged to support the troops by knitting. Home knitting grew in popularity, especially as fashion fully embraced knitwear. Companies started, or expanded, to meet the demands of home knitters, producing patterns, yarn, and tools.

 

1930s: The Depression

The prominence of knitwear in fashion of the 1920s continued, but reflected the changes of fashion. The combining traditional methods in new ways became more common and new technologies such as zip fasteners began to be used in knitwear. New synthetic yarns started to become available.
The hardship experienced by many during the Great Depression meant some turned to knitting through necessity. It was much cheaper to knit your own garments than to buy hand (or even machine) knitted products. Skills were needed for repairs to existing garments, socks and underwear. Patterns, now often included in popular women’s magazines frequently reflected this need. Socks with replaceable toes and heels were common. Some hobby knitters took to part-time work, hand-knitting for extra income.
The 1930s also saw a rise in the popularity of commercial machine knitting. Much commercially sold knitwear during the 1920s was hand-knitted, however the costs of this and other pressures of the time saw a large shift in consumers towards cheaper machine knitted products.

 

1939–1945: Knitting for Victory

World War I poster encouraging people to knit socks for the troops
Make do and mend was the title of a booklet produced by the British wartime government department, the Ministry of Information. Wool was in very short supply, and the booklet encouraged women to unpick old unwearable woolen items in order to re-use the wool.
Knitting patterns were issued so that people could make items for the Army and Navy to wear in winter, such as balaclavas and gloves. This not only produced the much-needed items, but also gave those on the “home front” a positive sense of contributing to the war effort.

 

1950s and 60s: Haute Couture

After the war years, knitting had a huge boost as greater colors and styles of yarn were introduced. Many thousands of patterns fed a market hungry for fashionable designs in bright colors. The twinset was an extremely popular combination for the home knitter. It consisted of a short-sleeved top with a long-sleeved cardigan in the same color, to be worn together.
Girls were taught to knit in school, as it was thought to be a useful skill, not just a hobby. Magazines such as Pins and Needles in the UK carried patterns of varying difficulty including not just clothes, but also blankets, toys, bags, lace curtains and other items that could be sold for profit.

 

1980s decline

The popularity of knitting showed a sharp decline during this period in the Western world. Sales of patterns and yarns slumped, as the craft was increasingly seen as old-fashioned and children were rarely taught to knit in school.
The increased availability and low cost of machine-knitted items meant that consumers could have a sweater at the same cost of purchasing the wool and pattern themselves, or often for far less.
Alternatives to traditional woolen knitwear gained in popularity, such as tracksuits and sweatshirts, which began to be worn as everyday wear rather than only in a sporting context. Sewn from a micro-knit synthetic fabric and brushed on one side, these were more fashionable at the time, produced more cheaply and quickly and easier for consumers to care for. These fabrics could also easily be printed with fashionable designs. Although made from a kind of knit fabric they are not usually considered knitwear.
These new garments, along with trends away from formality in clothing meant traditional knitwear was no longer seen as sportswear as it had been in the 1920s. Knitwear became more associated with smart casual” wear.
Technological advances such as computerized knitting machines saw new designs and approaches to knitting. Some artists began to see knitting as a legitimate art form rather than a craft or cottage industry, and more attention was placed on the design possibilities of knitting from an artistic perspective rather than just fashionable or practical approaches.

1990s

By the late 1980s, many of the suppliers to the home knitting market had disappeared or been absorbed into other companies, while local wool shops suffered a marked reduction in numbers. However, home knitting still had a strong and loyal following.
The growth of craft fairs, release of well researched books on many aspects of knitting and the continued support among those who had learnt the skill in the heyday of the 60s and 70s kept a considerable amount of interest in knitting alive.
One of the most influential changes was the spread internet, which enabled knitters to share advice, patterns and experience, but also it meant that home knitters had direct access to supplies rather being reliant on local sources. These trends have continued.

 

Early 21st century revival

The 21st century has seen a resurgence of knitting. This resurgence can be noted in part to coincide with the growth of the internet and internet-based technologies, as well as the general “Handmade Revolution” and interest in DIY crafts.
Natural fibers from animals, such as alpaca, angora and merino and plant fibers, chiefly cotton, have become easier and less costly to collect and process and therefore more widely available. Exotic fibers, such as silk, bamboo, yak and qiviut are growing in popularity as well. The yarn industry has started to make novelty yarns, which produce stunning results without years of knitting experience.[citation needed] Designers have begun to create patterns which work up quickly on large needles, a phenomenon known as instant-gratification knitting.
Celebrities including Julia Roberts, Winona Ryder, Dakota Fanning, and Cameron Diaz have been seen knitting and have helped to popularize the revival of the craft. There has also been a return by men to the art of knitting.[citation needed]
As time and technology change, so does the art of knitting. The Internet allows knitters to connect, share interests and learn from each other, whether across the street or across the globe. Among the first Internet knitting phenomena was the popular KnitList, with thousands of members. In 1998, the first online knitting magazine, KnitNet, began publishing. (It suspended publication with its 54th edition in 2009.) Blogging later added fuel to the development of an international knitting community.
Patterns from both print and online sources have inspired groups (known as knit-a-long’s, or KAL’s) centered on knitting a specific pattern. Knitting podcasts have also emerged, with much cross-pollination of ideas from blogs, ‘zines, and knitting books. Traditional designs and techniques that had been preserved by a relatively small number of hand-knitters are now finding a wider audience as well.
In addition, a type of graffiti called yarn bombing, has spread worldwide. Like traditional graffiti, this consists of creating knit pieces in public spaces without permission.
On January 14, 2006, influential author and knit-blogger Stephanie Pearl-McPhee, otherwise known as Yarn Harlot, challenged the knitting world to participate in the 2006 Knitting Olympics.[22] To participate, a knitter committed to casting-on a challenging project during the opening ceremonies of the 2006 Winter Olympics in Torino, and to have that project finished by the time the Olympic flame was extinguished sixteen days later. By the first day of the Olympics, almost 4,000 knitters had risen to the challenge.
As another sign of the knitting’s popularity in the early 21st century, a large international online community and social networking site for knitters and crocheters, Ravelry, was founded by Casey and Jessica Forbes in May 2007.[23] At first available by invitation only, the site connects knitting and crochet enthusiasts around the world and, as of May 2016 had over 6.21 million registered users.[24]

History of quilting

Mrs. Bill Stagg of Pie Town, New Mexico with her patchwork and embroidery quilt that displays all the United States state flowers and birds, October 1940.
Quilting, the stitching together of layers of padding and fabric, may date back as far as ancient Egypt.[1]

Whole-cloth quilt, 18th century, Netherlands. Textile made in India.
In Europe quilting appears to have been introduced by Crusaders in the 12th century (Colby 1971), in particular in the form of the aketon or gambeson, a quilted garment worn under armour which later developed into the doublet.
One of the earliest existing decorative works is the Tristan quilt,[2] made around 1360. Made in Sicily, and as one of the earliest surviving quilts in the world, at least two sections survive at the V&A Museum (London) and in Bargello palace (Florence). Another of the Tristan and Isolde story is held in a private collection.

 

Russia

Russia holds the oldest example in existence. It is a quilted linen carpet found in a Mongolian cave, and now kept at the Saint Petersburg department of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Archaeology Section.[3]

 

United States

Quilt making was common in the late 18th century and early years of the 19th. Most women were busy spinning, weaving and sewing in order to clothe their family. Commercial blankets or woven coverlets were a more economical bedcovering for most people. Only the wealthy had the leisure time for quilt making so Colonial quilting was done by only a few.
Obviously quilts were not made of left over scraps or worn clothing as a humble bedcovering during this period. Instead they were decorative items that displayed the fine needlework of the maker such as the Baltimore album quilts.
Whole cloth quilts, broderie perse and medallion quilts were the styles of quilts made during the early 19th century.
According to the Wall Street Journal there are an estimated twenty-one million quilters in the United States.[4]

 

Wholecloth quilts

Early wholecloth bed quilts which may appear to be a solid piece of fabric are actually composed of strips of fabric, inasmuch as early looms could not produce expansion of cloth large enough to cover an entire bed surface. Early quilts that feature the same fabric for the entire quilt top, whether that top is made of dyed wool or pieces of (the same) printed cotton fabric, are referred to as wholecloth quilts. Early wholecloth quilts have three layers: a quilt top, a filling (in early quilts the filler was often wool), and a backing. The three layers are held together via quilting stitches worked by hand, in an age before sewing machines were marketed. In wholecloth quilts, the quilting stitches themselves serve as the only decoration. The earliest whole cloth quilts found in America were brought from Europe. Initially, quilts were owned by the wealthy in America who had the means to purchase imported quilts.
The Lovely Lane Museum, Baltimore, Maryland, holds a quilt in their collection believed to have been carried onshore by the Cogswell family who embarked from Bristol, England en route to Bristol, Maine in 1635. Once the passengers were safely on shore, the galleon “Angel Gabriel, moored in Pemaquid Bay, was completely destroyed when the Great Hurricane of 1635 rushed up the coast from Naragansett, Rhode Island, leaving the ship as just a mass of floating debris after it was hit with the strongest winds ever recorded. The story is recounted in an article written by Patricia L. Cummings titled “Quilts in Early America, Part I: The Oldest Known Wholecloth Quilt Brought to the New World,” published in The Quilter magazine (Stanhope, NJ: All-American Crafts, Inc., February/March 2014).
The Canton Historical Society, Canton, Massachusetts, believes that a wholecloth quilt in their collection may be the oldest wholecloth quilt made in America. An article published in The Quilter magazine, April/May 2014, titled “Early American Quilts in America, Part II: The Martha Crafts Howard Quilt” by Patricia L. Cummings offers details of the wool wholecloth quilt made in 1786 by Martha Crafts Howard, whose life stories are also shared in that article.
In 2005, quilt historian, Patricia L. Cummings, wrote a series of five articles that explore the art of wholecloth quilting published them on her website, Quilter’s Muse Publications. That particular series includes information about the wholecloth quiltmaking tradition of some European countries and features photos provided by contributors to the articles.
In March 2014, Cummings added two new articles to Quilter’s Muse Publications’ website: “Wholecloth Quilts: Yesterday and Today”; and “Andrea Stracke – Wholecloth Quilts,” which offers photo examples of quilts made by a wholecloth quilt artist who lives in Germany.
A more complete survey is needed to compare all of the wholecloth quilts held in the many museum locations who have collected such textiles. Many early quilts did not survive the test of time or were discarded, or else, they survived but the name of the quilter is lost to history. For a time, the trend in wholecloth quilting was a preference for all-cotton white quilts.
Many of the beautiful surviving wholecloth quilts feature feather designs, outlines of flowers, or are based on other designs taken from nature motifs. Some were made even more exquisite by the use of stuffed and corded quilting, a method sometimes called trapunto. Trapunto is an Italian word used to describe the technique of slipping extra stuffing into certain areas of a quilt to create areas of raised motifs that stand in relief. For example, stuffing placed inside the quilted outline of a feather or flower makes the design stands out. Women were sometimes proud of their finely wrought and evenly spaced quilting stitches in their wholecloth quilts. This type of quilting seems to be experiencing a revival today and some quilt stores sell pre-marked quilt tops ready to be layered and quilted, either by hand or by machine.

 

Broderie perse quilts

Broderie perse refers to the applique of cut out motifs from printed fabric onto a solid background. This form of quilt making has been done since the 18th century. The popular printed fabric during this period was chintz imported from India.
Printed fabric was expensive even for those who were well off. By cutting out birds, flowers and other motifs from printed fabric and sewing them onto a large homespun cloth a beautiful bedspread could be made. The technique was also used on some early medallion quilts as in the example.
Broderie Perse bedcoverings were usually used on the best bed or sometimes only when guests were staying in the home.

 

Medallion quilts

Elizabeth Welsh. Medallion Quilt, c. 1830. Cotton. Brooklyn Museum
Medallion quilts are made around a center. The center was sometimes a solid piece of large-scale fabric like a toile or a Tree of Life, an appliqued motif or a large pieced star or other pieced pattern. The central area was surrounded by two or more borders. Although some borders were solid, many were pieced or appliqued.

 

Mid-19th century

Changes came about as progress in technology deeply affected the number and styles of quilts made during the middle years of the 19th century.
The industrial revolution brought about the most dramatic change as textiles came to be manufactured on a broad scale. This meant women no longer had to spend time spinning and weaving to provide fabric for their family’s needs. By the 1840s the textile industry had grown to the point that commercial fabrics were affordable to almost every family. As a result, quilt making became widespread.
A great variety of cotton prints could be bought to make clothing and even specifically for making a quilt. Although scraps left over from dressmaking and other sewing projects were used in quilt making, it is a myth that quilts were always made from scraps and worn out clothing. Examining pictures of quilts found in museums we quickly see that many quilts were made with fabric bought specifically for that quilt.
Another major shift was in the style of quilts made. Although a few earlier quilts were made in the block style, quilts made up of blockswere uncommon until around the 1840s. With so many fabrics being manufactured quilters could create their blocks with a delightful variety of fabrics.
Some block style quilts were made of a set of identical pieced blocks while others contained a variety of blocks made with different patterns. The blocks were sewn together and a border may or may not have been added.
During this period the invention and availability of the sewing machine contributed to quilt making. In 1856 The Singer company started the installment plan so that more families could afford a sewing machine. By the 1870s a good many households owned a sewing machine.
This affected quilt making in two ways. First of all women could make clothing for their family in much less time leaving more time for quilt making and secondly they could use their sewing machines to make all or part of their quilts. More often the sewing machine was used to piece quilts but occasionally the quilting itself was done with the sewing machine.

Oak Leaf Variant applique quilt, c. 1860, cottons, made by Mrs. M.E. Poyner, Paducah, Kentucky, dimensions: 74″ x 86″. Included in “Kentucky Quilts, 1800-1900” and “Homefront & Battlefield: Quilts & Context in the Civil War” traveling exhibitions and catalogues. Collection of Bill Volckening, Portland, Oregon.

 

Civil War era

Leading up to the American Civil War, quilts were made to raise funds to support the abolitionist movement then during the war, quilts were made to raise funds for the war effort and to give warmth and comfort to soldiers. The patterns were much like those made mid-century but the purpose was different. Quilts connected to the abolitionist movement and the Civil War were made for a cause, many representing the relevant flag.

 

Abolition and the role of quilts

Even before 1830, abolitionists were working hard to end slavery. One way they did this was to hold grand fairs to raise both awareness and money for the abolitionist cause. Quilts were one of many craft pieces sold at these fairs. These quilts were usually fine quilts often with beautiful appliqué. Women sometimes put anti-slavery poems and sayings on the quilts they made for fairs as well as for friends and family. The goal was to show the terrible plight of the slaves.
Some abolitionists were active in the Underground Railroad helping runaway slaves get to safety. There are stories that certain quilts were used as signals to help the slaves in their flight to freedom. The idea that a log cabin quilt would be hung on the line of a safe house was one. More recent stories tell of certain quilts being used to tell the slaves what they needed to do to get to safety. This all sounds quite romantic but historians are divided on the theory and legend. But we do know that a valiant effort was made by both whites and free slaves to help these slaves to their destination.

 

For the troops

Civil War soldier’s quilt.
Women on both sides were very active in raising money for the war effort and making quilts and other bed coverings for soldiers.
In the North, quilts were still made for fairs but now these fairs earned money to support needs that came about because of the war. In the South lovely quilts called “gunboat” quilts were made to pay for much-needed gunboats.
It wasn’t long before it was obvious that soldiers on both sides would need blankets and quilts for warmth. In the North, women either made quilts or remade quilts from bed coverings. Since the cots were narrow two bedspreads could be made into three quilts for soldiers. The United States Sanitary Commission was in charge of collecting distributing them.
In the South, it was more difficult because cotton was grown in the south but manufactured into fabric in the north. Before long, fabric was almost impossible to obtain so women had to spin and weave before they could sew a bed covering together. Needless to say most of the quilts made for soldiers on either side were made with practical patterns and fabric and due to heavy use, very few have survived to this day.
Victorian era America[edit]
Quilt making continued to be a popular craft during the latter part of the 19th century. The English Victorian influence was slightly delayed in the United States because of the Civil War and its aftermath.

 

Amish quilting

Amish quilts are appreciated for their bold graphic designs, distinctive colour combinations, and exceptional stitching. Quilting became a favoured activity of the Anabaptist sect after emigrating to the United States and Canada from Germany and Switzerland over 250 years ago. The earliest known Amish quilts, dating from 1849, are whole-cloth works in solid colours. Pattern-pieced bed coverings didn’t appear until the 1870s. Particular patterns and fabrics are identified with specific Amish communities; for example, pre-1940s quilts from Lancaster County were almost always made of wool while those sewn in Ohio during the same period were commonly made of cotton.[5]
Often these quilts provide the only decoration in a simply furnished home and they also were commonly used for company or to show wealth. Amish religion discourages individual expression but quiltmaking has allowed Amish women to express their creative natures without giving offence. The Amish communities have always encouraged activities that promote community and family closeness so quilting became a fundamental part of social life for the women of the community. Quilts are created for everyday use or to celebrate special occasions such as birthdays, weddings, raising funds for the church or community cause. Since the “English” (the name for non-Amish people) discovered Amish work in the late 1960s, quilting has become a source of income for many. Their quilts have become collectors’ items all over the world.[6]

 

Crazy quilting fad

In terms of quilts the latter years of the 19th century is best remembered for the “Crazy quilting” craze. Crazy quilts were made of abstract shapes sewn randomly together. Usually the quilt maker then used embroidery to embellish the quilt. Fancy stitches were sewn along the seams and often, embroidered motifs were added, including flowers, birds and sometimes a spider and web for good luck. Magazines encouraged making “crazies”. Young women were particularly eager to make them. These simple, organic quilts were seldom used as bed-coverings, instead they were made smaller and without batting to be used as decorative throws.

 

Traditional quilt survival

Because crazy quilting was so popular at the time, they tend to eclipse the fact that many traditional quilts were also made for bedding and commemoration. Utilitarian quilts were pieced and tied or simply quilted for everyday bed coverings while beautiful pieced and/or appliquéd quilts were created for special events like a wedding or when a beloved minister was transferred to a new location. These were more often elaborately quilted.
Art quilts[edit]
Art quilts evolved from crazy quilt, where cloth and thread became the tools to create works of art.

 

Modern quilts

Concise on quilting

The art of quilting was once important and large part of women and young girl’s life. Over time it has turned into a popular hobby for women that have a passion for fabric and sewing. Rumors of how the quilt was used during the Civil War to aid the Underground Railroad has given a sense of mystery and adventure to the meaning of quilts, but these are just rumors with no actual evidence. The amount of time and effort that goes into the creation of a quilt makes these “fabric sandwiches” not only expensive to create and sometimes purchase, but produces a priceless family heirloom that should be passed down from generation to generation.

 

The Knit Knot Tree

Yarn bombing, yarnbombing, yarn storming, guerrilla knitting, kniffiti, urban knitting or graffiti knitting is a type of graffiti or street art that employs colourful displays of knitted or crocheted yarn or fibre rather than paint or chalk.

Method and motivation

While yarn installations – called yarn bombs or yarnstorms – may last for years, they are considered non-permanent, and, unlike other forms of graffiti, can be easily removed if necessary. Nonetheless, the practice is still technically illegal in some jurisdictions, though it is not often prosecuted vigorously.
While other forms of graffiti may be expressive, decorative, territorial, socio-political commentary, advertising or vandalism, yarn bombing was initially almost exclusively about reclaiming and personalizing sterile or cold public places.[2] It has since developed with groups graffiti knitting and crocheting worldwide, each with their own agendas and public graffiti knitting projects being run.

 

History

Statue of Johann Nestroynear Nestroyplatz, Vienna
The practice is believed to have originated in the U.S. with Texas knitters trying to find a creative way to use their leftover and unfinished knitting projects, but it has since spread worldwide.
The start of this movement has been attributed to Magda Sayeg, 37, from Houston, who says she first got the idea in 2005 when she covered the door handle of her boutique with a custom-made cozy.

Moose, Museum of comic art, Frankfurt

Houston artist Bill Davenport was creating and exhibiting crochet-covered objects in Houston in the 1990s, and the Houston Press stated that “Bill Davenport could be called the grand old man of Houston crocheted sculpture.”[6] Artist Shanon Schollian was knitting stump cozies in 2002 for clear cuts in Oregon.[7] The Knit Knot Tree by the Jafagirls[8] in Yellow Springs, Ohio gained international attention in 2008.
The movement moved on from simple ‘cozies’ with the innovation of the ‘stitched story’. The concept has been attributed to Lauren O’Farrell[9] (who creates her street art under the graffiti knitting name Deadly Knitshade), from London, UK, who founded the city’s first graffiti knitting collective Knit the City. The ‘stitched story concept’ uses handmade amigurumi creatures, characters and items to tell a narrative or show a theme. This was first recorded with the Knit the City collective’s “Web of Woe” installation[10] in August 2009.
The Knit the City collective were also the first to use O’Farrell’s term ‘yarnstorming’ to describe their graffiti knitting, as an alternative to the more popular term ‘yarnbombing’.
Yarn bombing’s popularity has spread throughout the world. In Oklahoma City the Collected Thread store yarn bombed the Plaza District of the city on 9 September 2011 to celebrate their three-year anniversary as a functioning shop.[13] and in Australia a group called the Twilight Taggers refer to themselves as ‘fibre artists’.[14] Joann Matvichuk of Lethbridge, Alberta founded International Yarnbombing Day, which was first observed on 11 June 2011.

Although yarnbomb installations are typically found in urban areas, Stephen Duneier, aka Yarnbomber, is the first to introduce it the wilderness with numerous permitted projects in Los Padres National Forest beginning in 2012.[16]
The Craft Club Yarnbombers (Emma Curley, Helen Thomas, Gabby Atkins, Claire Whitehead and Rebecca Burton) became Guinness World Record holders for the largest display of crochet sculptures, when they yarnbombed a children’s hospice with 13,388 crocheted items.[17] They have also brought yarnbombing to their community in Essex with their postbox yarnbombs.[18]

 
alexandra kehayoglou hand-tufts carpeted pastorial landscapes of sublime realitiesalexandra kehayoglou hand-tufts carpeted pastorial landscapes of sublime realitiesfeb 11, 2016alexandra kehayoglou + maxi ciovich craft winter passing chairalexandra kehayoglou + maxi ciovich craft winter passing chairjun 11, 2013popular now art’bark vader’ helmet by christophe guinet: arborous armor for a wooden star wars warrior’bark vader’ helmet by christophe guinet: arborous armor for a wooden star wars warriornov 25, 2016hauser & wirth presents a carnivalesque cast of characters by paul mccarthyhauser & wirth presents a carnivalesque cast of characters by paul mccarthynov 26, 2016sam dougados inscribes moroccan beaches with intricate arabic patternssam dougados inscribes moroccan beaches with intricate arabic patternsnov 27, 2016machine project’s underwater art show is submerged in a swimming pool in LAmachine project’s underwater art show is submerged in a swimming pool in LAnov 25, 2016christophe guinet turns vintage apple computers into pots for exotic plantschristophe guinet turns vintage apple computers into pots for exotic plantsnov 21, 2016maison et objet spring 2016 (21 articles)
alexandra kehayoglou hand-tufts carpeted pastorial landscapes of sublime realitiesalexandra kehayoglou hand-tufts carpeted pastorial landscapes of sublime realitiesfeb 11, 2016yabu pushelberg blends subtle masculinity in the james collection for stellar worksyabu pushelberg blends subtle masculinity in the james collection for stellar worksfeb 04, 2016alessandro zambelli designs standing portable lantern for bosaalessandro zambelli designs standing portable lantern for bosajan 31, 2016maarten baas + koichi futatsumata interpret distinctive cutlery for valerie_objectsmaarten baas + koichi futatsumata interpret distinctive cutlery for valerie_objectsjan 28, 2016petra krausova’s light installation for LASVIT reflects the night skypetra krausova’s light installation for LASVIT reflects the night skyjan 27, 2016
alexandra kehayoglou hand-tufts carpeted pastorial landscapes of sublime realitiesfeb 11, 2016
alexandra kehayoglou hand-tufts carpeted pastorial landscapes of sublime realities

alexandra kehayoglou hand-tufts carpeted pastorial landscapes of sublime realities
(above) ‘refugio para un recuerdo’

alexandra kehayoglou develops large format sculptures using textiles, primarily constructing carpet works which reflect sublime realities in the form of functional art. the argentinian creative is interested in employing production processes that link art to craft.
alexandra kehayoglou rug artist designboom
‘refugio para unos días felices’

each carpet kehayoglou creates is hand-tufted in her buenos aires studio, produced from materials retrieved from the factory el espartano — a textile and carpet manufacturer owned by her family. kehayoglou collects el espartano’s discarded materials and takes them as her prime medium, using a pistol to manipulate the threads into the point by point weft that breeds the final piece. the production process is long and complex and almost in a way performative, because of the corporeality of the work, and the technical precision required by her.
alexandra kehayoglou rug artist designboom
‘refugio para una tarde de lluvia’

the themes kehayoglou touches on are related to nature, in which she realizes immersive textile expanses of greenlands, paddocks and shelters that while functioning as carpets, invite the viewer to participate and contemplate through the use of each one. every work that kehayoglou develops is unique in texture and pattern, with an unrepeatable palette that is derived from her family’s textile traditions.

 

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Lisa Anne Auerbach, Never Forget (front and back), 2007, Merino wool. Size medium. Courtesy the artist and Gavlak, West Palm Beach, Florida.

 

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Crochet Crocus – Hi, Jenny Brown

 

Extended Artist Statement

 

I have largely researched and studied nature and the natural environment, as this is my inspiration for all my work.  The environment, in the area in which I live, is my main inspiration. From the trees to the hills to the rivers. Each area has its own special thought and feeling for me, how something so beautiful can be made by mother nature. And so, because of this I have considered it and researched it many times, to create my art. I work with textiles, mixed media and paint and enjoy everything I create I have also recently started to use wool and knitting and crochet in my work to create the image I have in my head. Over the past years, I have been given the opportunity to obtain new skills, which I did not have such as IT, which I have been able to use in my work, also via digital photography.

In the past I have created paintings and captured moments in time that I don’t want to forget, I have created videos with still images in them, to put my ideas across that looking after the landscape and the environment is a good thing and should be taken care of for the future generations to love and enjoy and cherish. I have worked on a personal project about unseen illnesses’, two of which I suffer from, and what it does to you as a human being. This project was to raise awareness of these unseen illnesses ‘as although u cannot see them and the person suffering from them, looks normal deep down they are the complete opposite, and how because of this it can prejudice employers and other people against the sufferer, and how protecting nature such as trees can help to protect us as they are the lungs of the earth, and are the producers of oxygen which we need as a species to live and thrive. This project was very close to my heart as it breaks my heart to see beautiful old trees cut down and not replaced. It also showed how as a sufferer I have had to fight all my life to stay well.

At the moment, I am currently working on textile pictures. These I am making with not only paint, but also textiles and wool using my knitting and crochet techniques I have been educating myself about over the last 10 years. One of the pictures has been inspired by my love of gardening and my front garden (which I finally managed to get started this year), that is my inspiration for it. Taking photos, of the garden as it was a work in progress showed me how beautiful it finally was when I was finished for this year. Using the plants, I have used has created not only colour but scent and has attracted the insects, bees and butterfly’s birds back to the garden and these are essential to life, as they are pollinators and are needed to pollinate not only the flowers but also the plants and trees of the surrounding area. I am also working on a painting with a difference, this painting will have not only a scene painted in the back ground but also a 3D image on the front of a tree. This will be to emphasize the importance of the tree no matter how mundane it may seem they are essential to life. I am also working now on a textile peace which shows the beauty of flower’s, and this is made totally from upcycled textiles, which I have obtained via charity shops, as I think it is good to reuse and not throw away. I will also be making one more which will consist of an acorn which is knitted and attached to a canvas to show the start of the life of a tree, this will also have a painted background. I have also created a picture made from material and which I have embroidered detail into to create a winter sunrise as they are one of mother nature’s more beautiful sights and I love them. Using upcycled textiles is in my part of helping to look after the planet, and giving to charity for those less fortunate than myself, as well as recycling as much as is possible which I do on a regular basis.  All the pieces I call my art has this message attached to them as the more we do the better the planet will be and conserving what we as a race have is the best way to go in my opinion.

There is one project this year I’m excited about and it is a collaboration with two other students one from Inverness and one from Perth college. As a collective, we will be taking each of our skills and adding them together to create a piece of art work. This will show how all the different techniques and skills as a collective come together to create one piece. It will give a small history of a piece of cloth. This book, we can then have a copy each of what we achieved as a group.

As for the future, I don’t know where it will take me but if I can keep pushing my messages about conservation and protection of the planet across, I will be happy. I would love to be able to open a community centre, in the area in which I live as there are so many new families and nothing here for them. If it were to happen I would be delighted as I would be giving back to the community in which I was brought up, by passing on my knowledge and techniques I have attained over many years. It would be a place where not only the children, but also all generations would be able to come to, and meet with each other and talk and play and maybe the older generation could help the younger generation to also appreciate what they have, and help to show them how to take care of it, and make sure it survives for future generations to come. I would also have classes to pass on what I know and this would hopefully enhance the future generations, to become more independent. By showing them and educating them to make do and mend and upcycle to give the planet a chance to thrive and recover, from what damage has already been done, this would happen via the way I work. I think having the chance to improve the area and have somewhere for people to go and enjoy would help to stitch the community together as a whole. It would help to stop the elderly becoming house bound and lonely and it would help young single mums to get together and make new friends, but most of all it would help to teach people how a community should be and that working together to create thing such as this, will be a better thing for everyone now and forever more.

 

 

Sheila Annal

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Mark Lomax

Practical Skills

 

 

Collaboration with Brian

Research For Class Artist collaborations:

Everything has been found on google search/images .

Reading what i have has opened up my eyes to what a collaboration can achieve . Some were personal and others more public, but everything was interesting to me. I did not understand what could be classed as a collaboration until now, and it can be anything and everything as long as it is equally shared between both parties and enjoyed by all.

It helps you to work with others and become a team not just one single entity. I look forward now , to hopefully have the opportunity to create a collaborative project of my own. Hopefully sooner rather than later . I am still thinking about what i can do but i know i will think of something . I always do !!!!

 

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Home Collection Collection of Documents Published by E.A.T Billy Klüver

 

Billy Klüver

E.A.T. – Archive of published documents

Projects Outside Art Press Release, 1969 “Projects Outside Art” Press Release, 1969

Experiments in Art and Technology was founded in 1966 by engineers Billy Klüver and Fred Waldhauer and artists Robert Rauschenberg and Robert Whitman. The non-profit organization developed from the experience of 9 Evenings: Theatre and Engineering. This event, which was held in October 1966 at the 69th Regiment Armory in New York City (U.S.), brought together 40 engineers and 10 contemporary artists who worked together on performances that incorporated new technology. It became clear that achieving ongoing artist-engineer relationships would require a concerted effort to develop the necessary physical and social conditions. E.A.T. saw itself as a catalyst for stimulating the involvement of industry and technology with the arts. The organization worked to forge effective collaborations between artists and engineers through industrial cooperation and sponsorship. Membership was opened to all artists and engineers, and an office set up in a loft at 9 East 16th Street in New York.

 

Artists and the art community responded enthusiastically to E.A.T. By 1969, given early efforts to attract engineers, the group had over 2,000 artist members as well as 2,000 engineer members willing to work with artists. Expressions of interest and requests for technical assistance came from all over the United States and Canada and from Europe, Japan, South America and elsewhere. People were encouraged to start local E.A.T. groups and about 15 to 20 were formed.

 

An ongoing Technical Services Program provided artists with access to new technology by matching them with engineers or scientists for a one-to-one collaboration on the artists’ specific projects. A part of this effort was to acquaint the technical and business communities with the artists’ needs. E.A.T. was not committed to any one technology or type of equipment such as computers or holography. The organization tried to have the artist work directly with engineers in the industrial environment where the technology was being developed. Technical Services were open to all artists with no judgment made about the aesthetic value of an artist’s project or idea. In addition, efforts were taken to team up every artist with a suitable engineer or scientist.

 

E.A.T. also initiated interdisciplinary events and projects involving artists and new technology. These projects included: 9 Evenings: Theatre and Engineering (1966); Some More Beginning (1968), the first international exhibition of art and technology, which was held at the Brooklyn Museum; and artist-engineer collaborations to design and program the Pepsi Pavilion at Expo 70 in Osaka (Japan).

 

In the seventies, emerging hardware technologies used in communications, data processing, and control and command instrumentation led to a new generation of software systems that were of great interest to artists. Realizing that artists could contribute significantly to the evolution of this software, E.A.T. generated a series of projects in which artists participated in these areas of technological development. E.A.T. undertook interdisciplinary projects that extended the artists’ activities into new areas of society.

 

Projects realized at this time included: The Anand Project (1969), which developed methods to produce instructional programming for India’s educational television through a pilot project at Anand Dairy Cooperative in Baroda (India); Telex: Q&A (1971), which linked public spaces in New York (U.S.), Ahmadabad (India), Tokyo (Japan) and Stockholm (Sweden) by telex, allowing people from different countries to question one another about the future; Children and Communication (1972), a pilot project enabling children in different parts of New York City to converse using telephone, telex and fax equipment; a pilot program (1973) to devise methods for recording indigenous culture in El Salvador; and finally a large-screen outdoor television display system (1976-1977) for the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris.

 

In 1980, to detail its activities and projects, E.A.T. put together an archive of more than 300 of its own documents: reports, catalogues, newsletters, information bulletins, proposals, lectures, announcements, and reprints of major articles. A selection of newspaper and magazine articles by others has also been included. Complete sets of this archive were distributed to major libraries in New York (U.S.), Washington (U.S.), Paris (France), Stockholm (Sweden), Moscow (Russia), Ahmadabad (India) and London (England).

 

The archive material reflects the great geographic, technical and artistic diversity of E.A.T.’s activities. Furthermore, the collection uniquely documents a vital and important moment in the history of post-war art, as well as artists’ continuing involvement with new technology in the 20th century.

 

Billy Klüver © 2000 FDL

Index:

 

Collection of Documents Published by E.A.T.

 

  • Presentation
  • Foreword by Billy Klüver

Thematic subdivisions

 

  • 9 Evenings: Theatre and Engineering
  • Technical Service Program
  • Technical Information
  • E.A.T Competition for Engineers and Artists
  • Lectures-Demonstration Series
  • Pepsi-Cola Pavilion Project
  • Anand Project
  • Telex: Q&A
  • American Artists in India
  • New York Collection for Stockholm
  • Multi-Dimensional Scaling
  • Projects Outside Art
  • Children and Communication
  • Artists and Television Projects
  • Projects in Central America
  • Paris-New York-Paris
  • Island Eye, Island Ear
  • United Nations Satellite Demonstration

 

Related pages:

Collection of Documents Published by E.A.T. Collection of Documents Published by E.A.T.

This collection features over 500 documents that explore the activities of Experiments in Art and Technology (E.A.T.) from 1965 to 1981.

Billy Klüver dies at 76Billy Klüver, one of the founders of E.A.T., dies at 76

We were sad to learn that Mr. Billy Klüver died Sunday, January 11, in his home in New Jersey. He was 76 years old.

 

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Johan Wilhelm (Billy) Klüver (November 13, 1927 – March 20, 2004) was an electrical engineer at Bell Telephone Laboratories who founded Experiments in Art and Technology. Klüver lectured extensively on art and technology and social issues to be addressed by the technical community. He published numerous articles on these subjects. Klüver curated (or was curatorial adviser) for fourteen major museum exhibitions in the United States and Europe. He has received the prestigious Ordre des Arts et des Lettres award from the French government.

Contents  [hide]

1              Life

1.1          Art and technology practice

1.2          Experiments in Art and Technology (E.A.T.)

1.3          Studies of Montparnasse

2              Awards and honors

3              See also

4              Notes

5              References

6              External links

Life[edit]

Dr. Klüver was born in Monaco, November 13, 1927, and grew up in Sweden. He graduated from the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, in Electrical Engineering. In 1952, at age 25, working for a large electronics company in France, Klüver helped install a television antenna on top of the Eiffel Tower and devised an underwater TV camera for Jacques Cousteau’s expeditions.[1]

In 1954 he came to the United States and received a Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from the University of California, Berkeley in 1957. He served as Assistant Professor of Electrical Engineering, at the University of California, Berkeley, 1957–58 and from 1958 to 1968 he was a Member of Technical Staff at Bell Telephone Laboratories in Murray Hill. He published numerous technical and scientific papers on, among others, small signal power conservation in electron beams, backward-wave magnetron amplifiers and infra-red lasers. He holds 10 patents.

Art and technology practice[edit]

In the early 1960s, Klüver began to collaborate with artists on works of art incorporating new technology, the first being kinetic art sculptor Jean Tinguely on his Homage to New York (1960), a machine that destroyed itself that was presented in the garden at MOMA. He was introduced to Jean Tinguely by Pontus Hulten, then director of the Moderna Museet, Stockholm.[2] Robert Rauschenberg also assisted on Homage to New York.

Klüver then worked on Robert Rauschenberg’s environmental sound sculpture called Oracle; and later with Yvonne Rainer on her dance in House of My Body. Klüver also worked with John Cage and Merce Cunningham on their Variations V, with Jasper Johns, inserting battery powered lights into a painting, and with Andy Warhol on Silver Clouds.

Klüver, Fred Waldhauer and artists Robert Rauschenberg and Robert Whitman collaborated in 1966 organized 9 Evenings: Theatre and Engineering, a series of performances that united artists and engineers. The performances were held in New York City’s 69th Regiment Armory, on Lexington Avenue between 25th and 26th Streets as an homage to the original and historical 1913 Armory show. Ten artists worked with more than 30 engineers to produce art performances incorporating new technology.

In 1967 he wrote a key theoretical text in the history of art and technology: Theater and Engineering – an Experiment: Notes by an Engineer.[3]

Experiments in Art and Technology (E.A.T.)[edit]

In 1966 Klüver, Robert Rauschenberg, Robert Whitman, and Fred Waldhauer founded Experiments in Art and Technology, a not-for-profit service organization for artists and engineers. Since 1968 he served as president of Experiments in Art and Technology.[4]

E.A.T. established a Technical Services Program to provide artists with technical information and assistance by matching them with engineers and scientists who can collaborate with them. In addition. E.A.T. initiates and administers interdisciplinary projects involving artists with new technology. These projects included:

The Pepsi Pavilion at Expo ’70, Osaka Japan where E.A.T. artists and engineers collaborated to design and program an immersive dome

A 1971 pilot project at Anand Dairy Cooperative, Baroda, India called “Utopia: Q&A” that consisted of public spaces linked by telex in New York, Ahmedabad, India, Tokyo, and Stockholm

A pilot program to develop methods for recording indigenous culture in El Salvador

The formation of a large screen outdoor television display system for Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris

A collaboration with artists Fujiko Nakaya (1980) and Robert Rauschenberg (1989) to design sets for the Trisha Brown Dance Company.

E.A.T. recently initiated a film restoration project to restore and edit the archival film material from 9 Evenings into ten films documenting the artists performances.

In 1972 Klüver, Barbara Rose and Julie Martin edited a book Pavilion that documented the design and construction of the Pepsi Pavilion for Expo ’70 in Osaka, Japan.

In 2001 Klüver produced an exhibition of photo and text panels entitled “The Story of E.A.T.: Experiments in Art and Technology, 1960 – 2001 by Billy Klüver.” It was first shown in Rome, then at Sonnabend Gallery in January 2002. The exhibition went to Lafayette College in the spring 2002, then to the Evolution Festival in Leeds, England, and University of Washington, in Seattle. In 2003 it traveled to San Diego State University in San Diego, California and then to a gallery in Santa Maria, California, run by Ardison Phillips who was the artist who managed the Pepsi Pavilion in 1970. From April to June 2003 a Japanese version was shown at a large exhibition at the NTT Intercommunication Center (ICC) in Tokyo which also included a number of object/artifacts and documents and E.A.T. posters, as well as works of art that Klüver and E.A.T. were involved in. A similar showing took place in Norrköping Museum of Art, Norrköping, Sweden in September 2004 and a small version was presented in 2008 at Stevens Institute of Technology.

Studies of Montparnasse[edit]

In 1978 Klüver began to work with his wife Julie Martin[5] on a research project on the evolution of the art community in Montparnasse from 1880 to 1930. In 1989 the book Kiki’s Paris was published in the United States, and subsequently appeared in France, Germany, Sweden, Spain, and Japan. Kiki was the pseudonym of Alice Prin.

Klüver and Julie Martin have edited and annotated the original English translation of Kiki’s Memoirs’, published in 1930, but banned by U.S. Customs from the United States. It was issued by Ecco Press in Fall 1996; and in French by Editions Hazan in 1998.

Klüver’s book, A Day with Picasso, published in 1997 in the U.S. (as well as in France, Germany. Brazil), was based on a group of photographs taken at lunch on a sunny afternoon in Montparnasse in 1916 by Jean Cocteau, of Pablo Picasso and Modigliani and friends. It later was published by Hakusuisha in Japan in 1999, and in Korea and Italy in 2000.

Awards and honors[edit]

In 1974 Klüver received the Order of Vasa, from the King of Sweden. In 1998 he received an honorary doctorate in Fine Arts from Parsons School of Design of the New School for Social Research and in 2002 he was named Chevalier in the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres, by the French Government.

See also[edit]

Biography portal

Systems art

Computer art

Conceptual art

Software art

Systems thinking

Knowledge visualization

Experiments in Art and Technology.

Notes[edit]

Jump up ^ Christiane Paul (2003). Digital Art (World of Art series). London: Thames & Hudson. p. 16

Jump up ^ Christiane Paul (2003). Digital Art (World of Art series). London: Thames & Hudson. p. 16

Jump up ^ Kristine Stiles & Peter Selz, Theories and Documents of Contemporary Art: A Sourcebook of Artists’ Writings (Second Edition, Revised and Expanded by Kristine Stiles) University of California Press 2012, pp. 480-483

Jump up ^ Christiane Paul (2003). Digital Art (World of Art series). London: Thames & Hudson. p. 16

Jump up ^ Julie Martin

References[edit]

Pavilion: Experiments in Art and Technology. Klüver, Billy, J. Martin, Barbara Rose (eds). New York: E. P. Dutton, 1972

Marga Bijvoet, (1997) Art as Inquiry: Toward New Collaborations Between Art & Science, Oxford: Peter Lang

Jack Burnham, (1970) Beyond Modern Sculpture: The Effects of Science and Technology on the Sculpture of this Century (New York: George Braziller Inc.

Oliver Grau, Virtual Art, from Illusion to Immersion, MIT Press 2004, pp. 237–240, ISBN 0-262-57223-0

Christiane Paul (2003). Digital Art (World of Art series). London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-20367-9

Wilson, Steve Information Arts: Intersections of Art, Science, and Technology ISBN 0-262-23209-X

Kynaston McShine, “INFORMATION”, New York, Museum of Modern Art., 1970, First Edition. ISBN LC 71-100683

Jack Burnham, ‘Systems Esthetics,’ Artforum (September, 1968); reprinted in Donna de Salvo (ed.), Open Systems: Rethinking Art C. 1970 (London: Tate, 2005)

Edward A. Shanken, ‘Art in the Information Age: Technology and Conceptual Art,’ in Michael Corris (ed.), Conceptual Art: Theory, Myth and Practice (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004).

Frank Popper (1993) Art of the Electronic Age, Thames and Hudson Ltd., London, and Harry N. Abrams Inc, New York, ISBN 0-8109-1928-1

Charlie Gere (2002) Digital Culture, Reaktion ISBN 978-1-86189-143-3

Jill Johnston, (2004) Billy Kluver, 1927-2004 Artworld Obituary in Art in America, March issue 2004

Charlie Gere (2005) Art, Time and Technology: Histories of the Disappearing Body, Berg, pp. 124 & 166

Catherine Morris (ed.), Clarisse Bardiot, Michelle Kuo, Lucy Lippard, Brian O’Doherty, (2006). 9 Evenings Reconsidered (Cambridge: MIT List Visual Arts Center), ISBN 978-0-938437-69-7

Kristine Stiles & Peter Selz, Theories and Documents of Contemporary Art: A Sourcebook of Artists’ Writings (Second Edition, Revised and Expanded by Kristine Stiles) University of California Press 2012, Klüver text Theater and Engineering – an Experiment: Notes by an Engineer, pp. 480–483

External links[edit]

Paul Miller’s IEEE Spectrum article: The engineer as catalyst: Billy Kluver on working with artists

Billy Klüver biography

Texts by Billy Klüver

The Godfather of Technology and Art: An Interview with Billy Klüver by Garnet Hertz, 1995.

Multimedia: From Wagner to Virtual Reality by Randall Packer and Ken Jordan

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 74056846 ISNI: 0000 0000 7977 8560 SUDOC: 029801435 BNF: cb140660968 (data) ULAN: 500355427

Categories: 1927 births2004 deathsAmerican engineersAmerican artistsRoyal Institute of Technology alumniScientists at Bell LabsPostmodern theoryArt curatorsRecipients of the Order of VasaChevaliers of the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres

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ART AND TECHNOLOGY, 1959–98

 

 

Rauschenberg and engineer Billy Klüver working on Oracle (1962–65) in Rauschenberg’s Broadway studio, New York, 1965. Photo: Larry Morris/The New York Times/Redux Pictures

 

Among the collaborative ventures that brought Rauschenberg emphatically outside the confines of his studio were his experimental works in art and technology. The artist’s interest in bringing technology into his art was already evident in some of the early Combines that integrated working appliances, such as radios, fans, electric lights, and clocks, allowing sound, motion, light, and the passage of time to quite literally be incorporated into his art.

 

Through his participation in the Swiss artist Jean Tinguely’s kinetic environment, Homage to New York in 1960, Rauschenberg began working with Bell Laboratories research scientist, Billy Klüver. In collaboration with Klüver, Rauschenberg realized some of his most ambitious technological works, including the sound-producing sculptural environment, Oracle (1962–65), as well as Soundings (1968), a monumental light installation responsive to ambient sound. Both works were meant to be experienced by the audience spatially and appeal to the senses beyond the purely visual.

 

In 1966, Rauschenberg and Klüver, together with artist Robert Whitman and engineer Fred Waldhauer, founded Experiments in Art and Technology (E.A.T.), New York, an organization that sought to make technology accessible to artists by arranging collaborations with engineers. In the same year and due to their interest in the potential application of technology for theater, they produced 9 Evenings: Theater & Engineering, an event that brought together visual artists, dancers, choreographers, scientists, and engineers, which resulted in technologically sophisticated performance works.

 

While Rauschenberg’s preoccupation with technology-based art reached its height during the 1960s, the artist would continue to periodically utilize technology in his art making through the 1990s. Among his later technology-based works was the series Eco-Echo (1993). Made following his attendance at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, the sonar-activated windmills referred to the artist’s environmental concerns and his interest in ecologically responsible sources of power.

 

 

Broadcast, 1959

 

 

Pantomime, 1961

 

 

Money Thrower For Tinguely’s H.T.N.Y., 1960

 

 

Oracle, 1962–65

 

 

Soundings, 1968

 

 

Rauschenberg giving instructions for Open Score (1966), 9 Evenings: Theatre and Engineering, Sixty-ninth Regiment Armory, New York, October 1966. Photo: Peter Moore © Barbara Moore/Licensed by VAGA, New York. Courtesy Paula Cooper Gallery, New York

 

 

Revolver IV, 1965

 

 

Rauschenberg in his Lafayette Street studio with Revolver VI (1967), New York, ca. 1967. Photo: Maurice Hogenboom

 

 

Solstice, 1968

 

 

Rauschenberg with Solstice (1968) at Robert Rauschenberg: Oeuvres de 1949 à 1968, Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, summer 1968. Photo: Ugo Mulas © Ugo Mulas Heirs. All rights reserved

 

 

Echo-Echo III, 1992-1993

 

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CHAPTERS

 

OVERVIEW: LIFE AND ART

 

 

EARLY WORKS, 1948-54

 

 

EXPANDING CAREER, 1954–69

 

 

WORKS ON PAPER, PHOTOGRAPHS, AND EDITIONS, 1952-2008

Bellini #1, 1986

PERFORMANCE, CHOREOGRAPHY, AND STAGE DESIGN, 1952–2007

 

 

ART AND TECHNOLOGY, 1959–98

 

 

MID-CAREER, 1970S–1980S

 

 

INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATIONS, 1973–95

 

LATE WORK, 1992–2008

 

ROBERT RAUSCHENBERG FOUNDATION

The Robert Rauschenberg Foundation seeks to further the artist’s philanthropic and educational initiatives, and aims to preserve and advance global understanding of the legacy of Robert Rauschenberg’s life and artwork.

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Connecting Collections, March 2010. Katie Mills and Alisdair Aldous, ‘Open up’: Unlocking the potential of archives & collections through creative collaboration

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Connecting Collections, March 2010. Katie Mills and Alisdair Aldous, ‘Open up’: Unlocking the potential of archives & collections through creative collaboration

  1. ‘Open up’ Unlocking the potential of archives & collections through creative collaboration Alisdair Aldous and Katie Mills, Knowledge Transfer Consultants University of the Arts London (UAL)
  2. UNIVERSITY COLLABORATION Universities offer a range of approaches to knowledge transfer: Special Projects Research Events KTP/Shorter KTP Sponsored PhDs Workshops Consultancy Studentships Exhibitions Bespoke solutions KT Fellowships Talks Student Commissions Competitions Client Projects Ideas generation
  3. THE SUPPORT WE OFFER OPEN CONVERSATION We engage in an exploratory conversation to identify your organisational needs, and to propose potential solutions that the University could provide. FUNDING BODIES We can help identify the appropriate funding for your project e.g. JISC, AHRC, and shape the project to meet funding criteria. LEVERAGING MATCH FUNDING By demonstrating the business benefits, we can help you gain financial support from within your organisation to help lever significant match-funding. KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER PARTNERSHIPS (KTPS) Help organisations with limited budgets gain access to valuable university expertise and services by accessing external funding.
  4. OUR EXPERTISE, YOUR PRIORITIES • Archives and collections management (80+ collections) • Conducting research • Developing new/existing audiences • Developing an educational offer • Creating an on-line/digital presence • Generating revenue from the collection • Increasing access to the collection • Designing exhibitions and engaging audiences in new ways • Taking innovative approaches to interpreting and curating • New approaches to marketing and communication • Creative Interventions and artistic responses
  5. Developing and diversifying an educational offer through user needs analysis and design Bridgeman Art Library KTP
  6. “It is helping Bridgeman Education reach the next generation of graphic designers and picture researchers, and creating a new income stream for the business.” – Pandora Mather-Lees, Managing Director, Bridgeman Art Library Outcomes: – Development of e-commerce service targeting the educational sector incl. improved management of the company’s website – Creation of educational web pages and seminars in collaboration with educational bodies and institutions – New process developed to improve digitising efficiency – New search categories created (e.g. Graphic Design, Fashion) to expand Bridgeman’s sales potential in the Education market – Exploration of new business models for licensing images
  7. Increasing visitor numbers and audience diversity through interactive experiences Southbank Centre KTP
  8. “KTP is a really creative and powerful way of the Southbank Centre furthering its own ambitions and its own ideas about itself in collaboration with another intuition and another individual who has very different skills to that of the people who work here.” – Shan Maclennan, Creative Director of Learning and Participation at Royal Festival Hall, Southbank Centre. Outcomes – An increase in visits to the Southbank’s flicker site from less than 10 per day to over 5,000 – Approx. 11,500 individual interactions with the photo booth – KTP also delivered interactive installation, audio tours, spatial redesign and training workshops Photo copyright: Southbank Centre
  9. Image copyright: Summer Snapshots, Southbank Centre
  10. Creative Interventions, Responses and Campaigns V&A Museum
  11. “Live performance within the collections challenges the common assumption of the museum as a passive place. Responsive and interventionist performance have the ability to reactivate both the artefact and the space.” – Peter Farley, Senior Academic Lecturer, Wimbledon College (UAL) Photos: copyright V&A
  12. Delegate Packs Katie Mills, k.mills@arts.ac.uk Alisdair Aldous, a.aldous@arts.ac.uk
  13. Group Discussion Using someone in the group’s archive/collection as an example, select one of the 3 priority issues on your handout and: 1. Describe 1 or 2 creative or strategic projects that have been done or could be done to achieve this goal 2. Describe what expertise or support a university collaboration could offer to help achieve or enhance this 3. What could the archive/collection offer that would be of value or benefit to the university?
  14. BEYOND THE HISTORY DEPARTMENT… Archives and collections management Archive and collections research Audience development Developing education and learning materials Cataloguing and indexing Commercialising content e.g. licensing Connecting collections (physical and virtual) Conservation and preservation Creative Interventions and artistic responses Creating interactive and engaging environments Curation including new and innovative practices Digitising collections Interactive websites, and virtual galleries and learning environments Online metadata and tagging Object and image interpretation Photography and photographic archives Oral histories and pod casts Product, display and exhibition design Widening participation and access
  15. Artists and artists work Artists’ Books, Camberwell College of Arts, Artists’ Books, Chelsea College of Art and Design, Artists’ Books, Printing Historical Collection, Artists’ Multiples, Bow Gamelan and Paul Burwell Archive, Contemporary Collection, Dom Sylvester Houedard Archive, Dorothea Rockburne Archive, Ephemera Collection, Facsimile Sketchbooks, Fine art, Prints and Drawings Collection, Ian Hamilton Finlay Archive, Japanese Print Collection, Jean Spencer Archive, John Schlesinger Library, Lawrence Weiner Archive, Lethaby Collection, Mariko Mori Archive, Peter Liversidge Archive, Photographic Exhibition Poster Collection, Stephen Willats Archive Asian and black history African-Caribbean, Asian & African Art in Britain Archive Bookbinding Charles Pickering Collection, Decorated Books from the Netherlands, Talwin Morris Collection, Teaching Books Collection Contemporary art Artists’ Multiples, CAB Gallery Archive, Camberwell Collection, Contemporary Art Slide Scheme, Contemporary Collection, Dom Sylvester Houedard Archive, Dorothea Rockburne Archive, Ephemera Collection, Jean Spencer Archive, John Schlesinger Library, Lawrence Weiner Archive, Mariko Mori Archive, Peter Liversidge Archive Fashion Business Archives Council Collection, Cooling Lawrence & Wells Collection. Cordwainers College Archive, EMAP Archive, Ethel E Cox Collection [London College of Fashion Archive], Gala Collection, Hat Collection, Hayes Collection of Textiles, Hester Borron Collection, Historic Shoes Collection, International Wool Secretariat Photographs [The Woolmark Company], Jenifer Rosenberg Collection, Korner Collection, London Alliance of West End Cutters Collection, Louis Bund Collection, Paper Patterns Collection, Tailoring Archive [Rare Publications Collection], Tailor and Cutter Academy Archive, Women’s Home Industries Archive Fashion, retail C&A Archive, Louis Bund Collection, Paper Patterns Collection Film and cinema Film Script Collection, German Film Poster Collectionm, John Schlesinger Library, Stanley Kubrick Archive, Thorold Dickinson Collection Foot ware Cordwainers College Archive Graphic design C&A Archive, Charles Pickering Collection, Comic Book Collection, German Film Poster Collection, John Westwood Collection, London College of Communication Archive, Photographic Exhibition Poster Collection, Tom Eckersley Collection Illustration Comic Book Collection, Fine art, Prints and Drawings Collection, Japanese Print Collection, Lethaby Collection, London College of Communication Archive, Rare Illustrated Books Collection, Talwin Morris Collection, Tom Eckersley Collection, Walter Crane Collection Institutional records African-Caribbean, Asian & African Art in Britain Archive, Artist Placement Group Archive, Bow Gamelan and Paul Burwell Archive, C&A Archive, Camberwell College of Arts Archive , Camerawork Archive, Chelsea College of Art and Design Archive, Cooling Lawrence & Wells Collection, Cordwainers College Archive, De Appel Archive, Delfryd Celf Gallery Archive, Ephemera Collection, International Wool Secretariat Photographs [The Woolmark Company], Inventory Archive, London Alliance of West End Cutters Collection, London College of Communication Archive, London College of Fashion Archive, London College of Fashion Digitised Archives, Materials and Products Collection, Museum and Study Collection, Kurt Schwitters Collection, Tailor and Cutter Academy Archive, Tailor’s and Outfitters’ Assistants’ General Friendly Society Collection, Teaching Book Collection, Women’s Home Industries Archive, Women’s International Art Club Archive Make-up Mary Quant Poster design German Film Poster Collection, John Westwood Collection, Tom Eckersley Collection Printing Bess Frimodig Collection, Catherine Arthur Collection, Charles Pickering Collection, Fine art, Prints and Drawings Collection, Japanese Print Collection, John Westwood Collection, Printing Historical Collection, Robert Fenton Archive, Talwin Morris Collection, Rare books and journals Camberwell College of Arts Rare Books Collection, Decorated Books from the Netherlands, Historic Journals Collection, Printing Historical Collection, Rare Illustrated Books Collection, Rare Materials Collection, Thorold Dickinson Collection, Walter Crane Collection Textiles Fine art, Prints and Drawings Collection, Hayes Collection of Textiles, International Wool Secretariat Photographs [The Woolmark Company], Louis Bund Collection, Materials Collection, Materials and Products Collection, Textiles Collection Theatre and film design Jocelyn Herbert Archive, Stage Costume Collection, Stanley Kubrick Archive, Theatre Costume Design Collection Typography Charles Pickering Collection Edward Clark Collection, John Westwood Collection, Robert Fenton Archive 3D art Artists’ Multiples, Camberwell

 

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ARCHITECTURE

Get to Know Philip Johnson’s Iconic Architecture

Explore the signature structures of the influential American architect

TEXT BY

ELIZABETH STAMP

Posted May 12, 2016

Even before he began designing buildings, Philip Johnson (1906–2005) was influencing architecture. At age 26, the Cleveland native and Harvard graduate became the first director of the department of architecture at the Museum of Modern Art. During his tenure at MoMA, Johnson promoted the work of modern architects including Mies van der Rohe and Walter Gropius, and along with Henry-Russell Hitchcock, he curated the controversial 1932 show “Modern Architecture: International Exhibition,” which introduced America to European modernism. Johnson returned to Harvard in 1940 to study architecture with Marcel Breuer, and in the late 1940s and ’50s he designed several of his most iconic structures, including his New Caanan, Connecticut, residence, the Glass House, and the Seagram Building in New York, which was a collaboration with Mies van der Rohe. In 1979, Johnson was the first recipient of the Pritzker Prize. From his early modern structures to his later postmodern buildings, Johnson defined several architectural movements over the course of his decades-long career.

Photo: Buyenlarge/Getty Images

The Glass House, Philip Johnson’s New Canaan, Connecticut, home, was one of his first projects, and one that would continue throughout his career. The 49-acre property includes 14 structures built between 1949 and 1955. The Glass House itself was designed to be open to the surrounding landscape and overlooks a pond. Now a National Trust for Historic Preservation Site, it welcomes visitors for tours from May through November.

Photo: John Lamparski/Getty Images

Johnson collaborated with architect Mies van der Rohe on the Seagram Building in Manhattan. The Park Avenue tower is sheathed in bronze and glass and spans 38 stories. Johnson also designed many of the interior spaces, including the iconic Four Seasons restaurant.

Photo: Ted Thai/Getty Images

Located at 550 Madison Avenue in Manhattan, Johnson’s AT&T Building (now known as the Sony Tower) is an icon of postmodern design. The building was designed with his partner at the time, John Burgee, and is distinguished by a pink granite exterior and the Chippendale-inspired pediment.

Photo: Universal Images Group/Getty Images

Johnson was hired by televangelist Robert H. Schuller to design Crystal Cathedral, a sanctuary for his complex in Garden Grove, California. Dedicated in 1980, the building is clad in over 10,000 panes of glass and is shaped like a four-pointed star. The striking structure stands beside architect Richard Neutra’s Tower of Hope.

Photo: Buyenlarge/Getty Images

Houston’s nondenominational Rothko Chapel, which contains 14 paintings by Mark Rothko, was commissioned by John and Dominique de Menil in 1964 and completed in 1971. Johnson was the original architect on the project but was replaced by local architects Howard Barnstone and Eugene Aubry after disagreements with Rothko over the design.

Photo: Bloomberg/Getty Images

Located in midtown Manhattan, the Lipstick Building, which gets its name from its shape and the shade of its red granite-and-steel exterior, was completed by Johnson and Burgee in 1986. The 34-story elliptical tower offers a striking contrast to the sharp-edged towers in the neighborhood.

Photo: David Kozlowski/Getty Images

Johnson designed Dallas’s Thanks-Giving Square, including the plaza’s spiral nondenominational chapel, in 1976. The chapel’s striking interior includes 73 panels of stained glass by artist Gabriel Loire.

Photo: Allan Baxter/Getty Images

Johnson’s design for the Amon Carter Museum in Fort Worth, Texas, was completed in 1961. The modern building was constructed using Texas shellstone, glass, and bronze and featured a two-story entrance hall and five gallery spaces. Johnson also oversaw two expansions, with the most recent addition opening in 2001.

Photo: Mabry Campbell

Another of Johnson’s Texas projects was the Chapel of St. Basil on the campus of the University of St. Thomas in Houston. Completed in 1997, the building was designed using three shapes: a cube, a sphere (which creates the dome), and a plane.

Photo: Scott Wintrow/Getty Images

Johnson’s New York State Theater, now known as the David H. Koch Theater, at Manhattan’s Lincoln Center opened in 1964 and has served as the home of the New York City Ballet for over 50 years. The theater was initially built as part of the 1964–65 World’s Fair.

Photo: Universal Images Group/Getty Images

Johnson and Burgee designed Pittsburgh’s PPG Place, which includes a 40-story tower, a 14-story building, and four six-story structures. Completed in 1984, the glass-and-steel complex has 231 spires, adding to its distinctive neo-Gothic style.

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 OBJECTS THAT ELAINE LUSTIG COHEN AND PHILIP JOHNSON BOTH WORKED ON

 

We have 3 objects that these people were involved with together

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  • Gift of Tamar Cohen and Dave Slatoff.

 

 

 

 

  • lithograph on ivory wove paper.

 

  • Gift of Tamar Cohen and Dave Slatoff.

 

  • 1993-31-84-2

 

 

  • Gift of Tamar Cohen and Dave Slatoff.

 

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EXHIBITION

ELAINE LUSTIG COHEN

ORGANIZED BY COLE AKERS

 

Photo by Andy Romer Photography.

  • ••

 

Jun. 13, 2015–Oct. 19, 2015

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The Glass House presents the first survey to explore the relationship between the early paintings and pioneering design projects of Elaine Lustig Cohen. Based in New York, Lustig Cohen has been highly regarded as a graphic designer, artist, and rare book dealer throughout her career, which spans over fifty years. On view in the Painting Gallery, the exhibition includes a selection of her paintings from the 1960s and 1970s as well as examples of her multi-year collaboration with architect Philip Johnson, among other projects.

In 1955, Lustig Cohen began a graphic design practice that integrated the aesthetics of European modernism within a distinctly American visual idiom for her diverse clientele of publishers, corporations, cultural institutions, and architects. Her first client was Johnson, who commissioned her to work on the lettering and signage for the Seagram Building. The two forged an important bond that resulted in a variety of projects for the Glass House, Yale University, Lincoln Center, the Munson-Williams-Proctor Art Institute, and the Sheldon Museum of Art, among others, as well as commissions from Johnson’s clients, including John de Menil and the Schlumberger oil company.

As a painter, Lustig Cohen developed a hard-edged style in the 1960s and 1970s that engaged  the physicality of the canvas’ flat surface. Employing a simplified formal language that includes solid colors and abstract geometric shapes, her paintings allude to her design work as well as the contemporaneous practices of other artists who strove to dissolve the barriers between painting and objecthood.

Elaine Lustig Cohen (b. 1927, Jersey City, New Jersey) studied art at the University of Southern California. Her first solo exhibitions in New York were held at John Bernard Meyers Gallery (1970, 1972, 1973), Galerie Denise René (1975), and Mary Boone Gallery (1979), where she was the first woman to have a solo exhibition. Since then, her work has been presented at Exit Art (1985), Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum (1995), Julie Saul Gallery (2005), the Rochester Institute of Technology (2014), and P! (2014), among other venues. As a graphic designer, her clients have included the Jewish Museum, New Directions, the Whitney Museum, and architects Eero Saarinen, Richard Meier, and Philip Johnson. In 1973, she co-founded the influential bookstore Ex Libris, which specialized in 20th century avant-garde books, periodicals, ephemera, and posters. Work by Lustig Cohen is held in numerous public and private collections, and she is the recipient of the 2011 AIGA Medal for her life’s work in design.

Special thanks to Prem Krishnamurthy and P!, New York.

© 2016 National Trust for Historic Preservation and The Glass House

 

 

 

Review: Elaine Lustig Cohen’s Paintings Move Into Philip Johnson’s …

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WHEN FINE ART AND FINE JEWELRY JOIN FORCES

Stephen Webster and Tracey Emin launch the “I Promise to Love You” collaboration…

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Fine artist with a romantic side Tracey Emin and fine jeweler with a celeb following Stephen Webster have created a jewelry collection made in Valentine’s Day gift heaven. Set in 18K gold, the “I Promise to Love You,” collection references Emin’s iconic neon sign works and animal sketches. Bracelets, pendants, ear cuffs, earrings and rings spell out heartbreakingly lovely sayings like the collection’s namesake piece as well as “With You I Breathe,” “More Passion,” and “Love” with a heart and a kiss in Emin’s script. Emin’s figurative woodland creatures like the hare, owl, toad and kitten have been made into yellow gold charms to be worn on a necklace chain or collected onto a charm bracelet. Webster and Emin have been friends for decades, so this natural union of art and jewelry has in a way been in the works for years. “”As Tracey pointed out on my 56th birthday, we have known each other for almost 40 years. Our first encounter was at the Atlantis Disco at the entrance of Dreamland in Margate dancing to rare groove American funk being spun by a very young Pete Tong,” Webster explains, “Some two decades later we became really great friends, always conscious of our Kent roots and Tracey’s genuine gypsy heritage.” Below, Webster speaks to Emin’s art, making it into bijoux and picking favorites.

Harper’s BAZAAR: Why is Emin’s art a good fit for your jewelry?

Stephen Webster: Tracey made a neon for my Rodeo Drive store six years ago that read “I Promise To Love You” with the slogan sitting inside a heart. Tracey said she always thought ‘that’ neon belonged in a jewelry store, where people get engaged and buy wedding rings. That is a very Tracey way of looking at things. She was of course right and it was from then on that I started to look at Tracey’s work and knew that so much of it would translate perfectly into jewellery. When I made a ring for Tracey that included two depictions of her animal sketches, we both thought how amazing they looked as hand engravings into gold.

HB: What was your approach to design around the art pieces?

SW: I worked from a few of Tracey’s drawings, that I have always loved, and began to sketch what I thought might be an amazing collection. I don’t usually get stage fright but it was a lot of work on paper, and you want a positive reading. Also we kept price in mind. This is not an elitist collection. It was important to her that it wasn’t priced just for her art collectors.

Courtesy Stephen Webster

HB: What do you love about Tracey’s art?

SW: I love her most recent large scale pieces that appear to be paintings but on close study are dramatic stitched female figures.  I am also fortunate enough to own a portrait of myself that Tracey gave me in exchange for once writing her column in the Independent while she was in Australia. The piece is titled ‘David Essex or Ken Dodd’, it’s brilliant.

HB: How was it working with her given your long history?

Tracey and I have known each other for almost 40 years. She has become a really great friend, always reminiscent of our Kent roots.  Tracey and I are also god parents to one of our best friend’s, Mick Jones’ two daughters.

HB: What’s your favorite piece of Tracey’s? Did you use that piece in the collection?

SW: I have several favorite pieces but if forced to choose one it would be the ‘More Passion’ cuff. I think a cuff bracelet is a great statement piece of jewelry and when a statement actually makes a statement, it’s a potent combination that’s hard to ignore.

The “I Promise to Love You” collection hits net-a-porter.com on January 20, before launching at Stephen Webster stores on February 10.

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Passages (Ravi Shankar and Philip Glass album)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Passages
Studio album by Ravi Shankar and Philip Glass
Released 1990
Genre Contemporary classicalHindustani classicalworld
Length 55:21
Label Atlantic

Passages is a collaborative chamber music studio album co-composed by Ravi Shankarand Philip Glass, released in 1990 through Atlantic Records.[1] The album’s content is a hybrid of Hindustani classical music and Glass’ distinct American minimal contemporary classical style. The album reached a peak position of number three on Billboard‘s Top World Music Albums chart.

Contents

[hide]

Composition[edit]

Offering. After a slow introduction saxophone plays the Shankar raga melody, subsequently enriched by the two other saxes. A long middle section in quicker tempo treats the material more freely in several parts, concluded with a shorter recapitulation of the opening theme.

Sadhanipa. The title based on the solfege notes (svaras): “SA DHA NI PA” from the Indian octave (saptaka) based on the first four tones of the Glass melody: “Do La Ti So” (D-B-C-A). An opening “ad lib” trumpet statement, echoed in the bass bamboo flute. Then the chamber orchestra develops the theme in 4/8-6/8-7/8. The Finale recapitulates the original Glass theme.

Channels and Winds. is an instrumental work with vocalists in A-B-A-B-A-B form which was conceived as a bridge between the two Shankar compositions based on the Glass melodies.

Ragas in Minor Scale. The Glass theme is introduced, after the veena introduction, by the cello. The opening section is in 6/8, middle section 4/8, closing in 4/8.

Meetings Along the Edge. A fast-paced work based on: 1) a “Middle Eastern” sounding Shankar theme in 7; 2) a second theme also by Ravi and also in 7 but of a somewhat different length; 3) A Glass theme in 4. Glass also added an Introduction and other rhythmic ideas. The themes are stated, blended and combined in the Finale.

Prashanti (Peacefulness). An extended orchestral work in two parts: Musical depiction of joyful people living in harmony. Slowly, greed, envy, hatred and violence creep into their contented lives. Out of this chaos a voice sings out in Vedic prayer:

“Hey Nath, hama para kripa kijiye. Door kara andhakar, gyan ka aloka dijiye, hinsa dwesh lobha bamese chhin lijiye, manamey prem shanti bhar dijiye.”

(Oh, Lord. Be benevolent to us. Drive the darkness away. Shed upon us the light of wisdom. Take the jealousy, envy, greed and anger from us, and fill our hearts with love and peace.)

… and a feeling of spiritual awakening, peace and tranquillity descends upon people’s minds.[2]

Reception[edit]

Professional ratings
Review scores
Source Rating
Allmusic [1]

Allmusic‘s Jim Brenholts awarded the album four of five stars, calling the music “brilliant”. Benholts wrote that Shankar’s “smooth” style and Glass’ dissonant orchestrations mixed well, and recommended Passages to fans of other minimalist composers such as John CageSteve Reich and Terry Riley.[1]

Track listing[edit]

  1. “Offering” (Ravi Shankar)– 9:47
  2. “Sadhanipa” (Philip Glass) – 8:37
  3. “Channels and Winds” (Glass) – 8:00
  4. “Ragas in Minor Scale” (Glass) – 7:37
  5. “Meetings Along the Edge” (Shankar) – 8:11
  6. “Prashanti” (Shankar) – 13:40

Track listing adapted from Allmusic.[1]

Personnel[edit]

Credits adapted from Allmusic.[1]

Charts[edit]

In the United States, Passages reached a peak position of number three on Billboard‘s Top World Music Albums chart.[3]

Chart (1990) Peak
position
Billboard‘s Top World Music Albums 3

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. Jump up to:ab c d e Brenholts, Jim. “Passages”AllmusicRovi Corporation. Retrieved March 29, 2012.
  2. Jump up^“Passages”. philipglass.com. Dunvagen Music Publishers. Retrieved April 6, 2012.
  3. Jump up^“Passages: Charts & Awards”. Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved March 29, 2012.
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BOOK OF LONGING
PHILIP GLASS & LEONARD COHEN

A Song Cycle based on
the Poetry and Artwork of Leonard Cohen

2007

DISC 1
1. Prologue – I Can’t Make The Hills 3:09
2. I Came Down from the Mountain 2:58
3. A Sip of Wine 8:41
4. Want to Fly 2:09
5. The Light Came Through the Window 4:10
6. Puppet Time 2:38
7. G-d Opened My Eyes 2:35
8. You Go Your Way 0:07
9. I Was Doing Something 4:19
10. Not a Jew 3:02
11. How Much I Love You 3:52
12. Babylon 5:46
13. I Enjoyed the Laughter 1:49

DISC 2
1. This Morning I Woke Up Again 5:15
2. I Want To Love You Now 5:57
3. Don’t Have The Proof 2:44
4. The Night of Santiago 5:09
5. Mother Mother 3:44
6. You Came to Me 10:27
7. I Am Now Able 3:20
8. Roshi’s Very Tired 2:38
9. Epilogue – Merely A Prayer 3:55

Credits:
Philip Glass and Musicians
Michael Riesman, Music Director and Conductor
Leonard Cohen, spoken text
Dominique Plaisant, soprano
Tara Hugo, mezzo-soprano
Will Erat, tenor
Daniel Keeling, bass-baritone
Tim Fain, violin
Philip Glass, keyboard
Megan Marolf, oboe, english horn
Eleonore Oppenheim, double bass
Michael Riesman, conductor, keyboard
Mick Rossi, keyboard, percussion
Kate St. John, oboe, english horn
Andrew Sterman, flute, piccolo, saxophones, bass clarinet
Wendy Sutter, cello

Orange Mountain Music, New York, 2007, Cat # omm0043

Photo © Lorca Cohen

“Leonard and I first began talking about a poetry and music collaboration more than six years ago. We met at that time in Los Angeles, and he had with him a manuscript that became the basis of the collection of poetry now published as the Book of Longing. In the course of an afternoon that stretched into the evening, he read virtually the whole book to me. I found the work intensely beautiful, personal, and inspiring. On the spot, I proposed an evening-length work of poetry, music, and image based on this work. Leonard liked my idea, and we agreed to begin. Now, six years later, our stars are in alignment, the book is published, and I have composed the music. For me, this work is both a departure from past work and a fulfillment of an artistic dream.”

-Philip Glass

More about the concert on this site

  • Book of Longing – Philip Glass and Leonard Cohen collaboration
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Philip Glass, Leonard Cohen team up in Book of

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Philip Glass, Leonard Cohen team up in Book of Longing

 

The Time Salvador Dali Worked for Walt Disney

Did you know that Disney briefly employed the world’s most famous surrealist?

Mark Mancini

12 . 05 . 16

Did you know that Disney briefly employed the world’s most famous surrealist?

Salvador Dali was approached by Disney himself in 1945 to propose a collaborative film. Entitled Destino, the picture would be based upon a Mexican folk song of the same name, with the music played to accompany a sequence of Dali-designed animation. The overjoyed surrealist enthusiastically agreed and quickly began sketching storyboards.

Disney’s sudden turn to surrealism was an attempt to silence several of his critics who felt that his films all too often sacrificed genuine artistry at the altar of marketability—favouring tradition and safety over innovation and experimentation. The evocative Fantasia, released in 1940, had been a groundbreaking first step on this front, and the animator now hoped that Destino would keep this newfound momentum going.

But alas, the project died in infancy and Disney pulled the plug on the film after its third month of production. Though he would remain lifelong friends with Dali afterwards, nothing remains of their short-lived joint venture but a 15-second demo reel and a handful of rudimentary sketches.

However, some 54 years later, the development of Fantasia’s long-awaited sequel, Fantasia 2000, inspired Disney’s nephew, Roy, to finally revive the project. A team of French animators were brought on board to produce the six-minute film on the basis of Dali’s notes and storyboards. In 2003, his musical vision was released at long last. Their efforts are currently available on YouTube:

Read more about:

Art

History

Disney

Walt Disney

Salvador Dali

Surrealism

Amazing facts

  

by Taboola 

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The Time Salvador Dali Worked for Walt Disney

Did you know that Disney briefly employed the world’s most famous surrealist?

Mark Mancini

12 . 05 . 16

Did you know that Disney briefly employed the world’s most famous surrealist?

Salvador Dali was approached by Disney himself in 1945 to propose a collaborative film. Entitled Destino, the picture would be based upon a Mexican folk song of the same name, with the music played to accompany a sequence of Dali-designed animation. The overjoyed surrealist enthusiastically agreed and quickly began sketching storyboards.

Disney’s sudden turn to surrealism was an attempt to silence several of his critics who felt that his films all too often sacrificed genuine artistry at the altar of marketability—favouring tradition and safety over innovation and experimentation. The evocative Fantasia, released in 1940, had been a groundbreaking first step on this front, and the animator now hoped that Destino would keep this newfound momentum going.

But alas, the project died in infancy and Disney pulled the plug on the film after its third month of production. Though he would remain lifelong friends with Dali afterwards, nothing remains of their short-lived joint venture but a 15-second demo reel and a handful of rudimentary sketches.

However, some 54 years later, the development of Fantasia’s long-awaited sequel, Fantasia 2000, inspired Disney’s nephew, Roy, to finally revive the project. A team of French animators were brought on board to produce the six-minute film on the basis of Dali’s notes and storyboards. In 2003, his musical vision was released at long last. Their efforts are currently available on YouTube:

Read more about:

Art

History

Disney

Walt Disney

Salvador Dali

Surrealism

Amazing facts

  

by Taboola 

Promoted Links 

From The Web

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  3. The Time Salvador Dali Worked for Walt Disney

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© Copyright Dennis Publishing Limited.Under licence from Felix Dennis.

 

The Time Salvador Dali Worked for Walt Disney

Did you know that Disney briefly employed the world’s most famous surrealist?

Mark Mancini

12 . 05 . 16

Did you know that Disney briefly employed the world’s most famous surrealist?

Salvador Dali was approached by Disney himself in 1945 to propose a collaborative film. Entitled Destino, the picture would be based upon a Mexican folk song of the same name, with the music played to accompany a sequence of Dali-designed animation. The overjoyed surrealist enthusiastically agreed and quickly began sketching storyboards.

Disney’s sudden turn to surrealism was an attempt to silence several of his critics who felt that his films all too often sacrificed genuine artistry at the altar of marketability—favouring tradition and safety over innovation and experimentation. The evocative Fantasia, released in 1940, had been a groundbreaking first step on this front, and the animator now hoped that Destino would keep this newfound momentum going.

But alas, the project died in infancy and Disney pulled the plug on the film after its third month of production. Though he would remain lifelong friends with Dali afterwards, nothing remains of their short-lived joint venture but a 15-second demo reel and a handful of rudimentary sketches.

However, some 54 years later, the development of Fantasia’s long-awaited sequel, Fantasia 2000, inspired Disney’s nephew, Roy, to finally revive the project. A team of French animators were brought on board to produce the six-minute film on the basis of Dali’s notes and storyboards. In 2003, his musical vision was released at long last. Their efforts are currently available on YouTube:

Read more about:

Art

History

Disney

Walt Disney

Salvador Dali

Surrealism

Amazing facts

  

by Taboola 

Promoted Links 

From The Web

How Do Magic Eye Pictures Work?

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  3. The Time Salvador Dali Worked for Walt Disney

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Recent digital enhancements have shed light on the book’s origins.

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Of Course Salvador Dalí And Walt Disney Had A Beautiful Friendship …

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Marcel Duchamp

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marcel duchamp and man ray

In 1915, when Marcel Duchamp accompanied Walter C. Arensberg in 1915 to visit Man Ray in Ridgefield, NJ, the two artists, meeting for the first time, played an impromptu game of tennis. Man Ray recalled with humor: “Duchamp didn�t speak English and my French was nonexistent […] so in order to have a conversation I would give a name to each pass […] and each time Duchamp would reply in English with a single word, “yes”. (Man Ray [1963], 1964, p. 63).

  • Straightaway, they seemed to be opposites in every way. The photograph of Duchamp, taken by Man Ray in 1920-1921, shows a character sharp, elegant, his profile chiseled and his body thin under his bulky overcoat. His manner of speaking was serene and his whole demeanor cerebral: an ‘éminence grise’. Man Ray on the other hand is warm and impetuous. The portrait taken of him by Alfred Stieglitz in 1915 shows the roundness of his face framed by brown curls and highlights his bright gaze. In three words: “Man Ray, n. masc., synom. de Joie, jouer, jouir [Joy, play, come]” (M. Duchamp [1975], 1994, p. 243). Not only do language and appearance separate them, their origins distinguish them as well. Duchamp, born of a notable Normandy family, received a classical education. Closely linked to his brothers and sisters, who were already recognized as artists, Marcel inherited social legitimacy and cared little for a professional career. He had “no solutions because he has no problems.” (M. Duchamp, quoted in M. Sanouillet, 1998, p. 212). Man Ray on the other hand, was the child of Russian immigrants. He was raised in a modest Brooklyn household, where he helped his parents in their garment workshop. He took drawing classes in New York City, frequented anarchist groups, and unlike Duchamp, his situation worried him. Fashion photography provided Man Ray with financial security and recognition. Man Ray had “no problems, just solutions.” (Man Ray, quoted in M. Sanouillet, ibid.)

The source for the fraternal friendship that linked the two men is to be found in their shared freedom and independence of spirit. Aside from a passion for chess, they shared a taste for the subversive and an irresistible desire to invent. Intellectually, their processes were similar. As art terrorists, they both knew how to place mines under artistic conventions, and their works, without being similar, nevertheless responded to the other. One can hardly evoke Man Ray�s objects without, in the background, projecting the shadow of Duchamp�s ready-mades. In fact, Man Ray�s taste for using objects and experimenting with language came from Duchamp. During the 1913 Armory Show, Man Ray remarked that Nu descendant un escalier might have gone unnoticed if it had a different title. “And that gave me an idea, so that after that time I always gave titles to my objects. They don�t explain the work, but they add what you could call a literary element that goads the spirit.& (Man Ray photographe, 1981, p. 36).

  • Read more
  • TEXT CREDITS
    Séverine Gossart, ‘Marcel Duchamp and Man Ray’translated from the French text, published in the catalogue Dada (Editions du Centre Pompidou : Paris 2005) 388-389. The translation was part of the Press Pack, published by MNAM Centre Pompidou 2005, p. 55-56 [Courtesy MNAM Centre Pompidou].
  • IMAGE CREDITS
    Photo 1. Marcel Duchamp by Man Ray, New York 1920.
    Photo 2. Man Ray, Tonsure de Marcel Duchamp, Paris 1919 [Collection Sylvio Perlstein, Antwerp]

 

artnet Galleries: Portrait on Man Ray and Marcel Duchamp by Henri …

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Marcel Duchamp, ‘Rrose Sélavy’, from a 1921 series of photographs by Man

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Man Ray / Paul Eluard – Les Mains libres (1937) – Collaborations artistiques

 

Titres Collaborateur d’Eluard Association Illustrations
1913 Premiers poèmes Ciolkowski Poèmes d’Eluard
et 4 illustrations de Ciolkowski
1917 Le devoir et l’inquiétude André Deslignères Poèmes d’Eluard
et frontispice (gravure sur bois) de Deslignères
1920 Les animaux et leurs hommes, les hommes et leurs animaux André Lhote Poèmes d’Eluard
et 5 dessins d’André Lhote
1922 Répétitions Max Ernst Poèmes d’Eluard,
11 collages de Max Ernst
1922 Les malheurs des immortels Max Ernst 20 poèmes d’Eluard et Ernst illustrant des collages de Max Ernst
1924 Mourir de ne pas mourir Max Ernst Poèmes d’Eluard avec en frontispice un portrait d’Eluard par Ernst
1925 Au défaut du silence [Max Ernst] Textes et poèmes d’Eluard
et 20 dessins (non signés) de Max Ernst
1925 152 proverbes mis au goût du jour Benjamin Péret 69 proverbes d’Eluard,
les autres de Benjamin Péret
1926 Les dessous d’une vie,
ou la pyramide humaine
Max Ernst Poèmes d’Eluard
et frontispice de Max Ernst
1928 Défense de savoir G. de Chirico Poèmes d’Eluard
et frontispice de Chirico (dessin Le poète et le philosophe, 1913)
1930 Ralentir travaux André Breton
et René Char
Poèmes écrits
en collaboration
1930 L’immaculée conception André Breton
Salvador Dali
Textes d’Eluard et Breton écrits en collaboration,
frontispice de Dali
1933 Le miroir de Baudelaire
(article publié dans Minotaure, n01
Matisse Texte d’Eluard et eau-forte de Matisse
1935 Nuits partagées Salvador Dali Poèmes d’Eluard et deux illustrations de Dali
1935 Appliquée
(édité dans le n° 7 de Minotaure)
Hans Bellmer Conte d’Eluard, photographies de Bellmer
1935 Facile Man Ray Poèmes d’Eluard
et 13 photographies de Nusch par Man Ray
1936 Notes sur la poésie André Breton Textes écrits
en collaboration
1936 Grand air
La barre d’appui
Les yeux fertiles
Pablo Picasso Poèmes d’Eluard
et illustrations de Picasso
1937 Les mains libres Man Ray 68 dessins de Man Ray illustrés par des poèmes d’Eluard
1937 Les animaux et leurs hommes, les hommes et leurs animaux Valentine Hugo Poèmes d’Eluard et 22 pointes sèches de Valentine Hugo
1937 Appliquée Valentine Hugo Conte d’Eluard et 7 pointes sèches de V. Hugo
1938 Dictionnaire abrégé
du surréalisme
André Breton Textes écrits
en collaboration
1938 Solidarité Picasso, Miro, Tanguy, Masson,
et alii
Poème d’Eluard
et gravures d’artistes divers
1938 Facile proie Stanley William Hayter Poèmes d’Eluard
et 8 eaux-fortes de Hayter
1938 Ode à Salvador Dali
de Federico Garcia Lorca
Louis Parrot Traduction d’Eluard et Parrot
1939 Chanson complète Max Ernst Poèmes d’Eluard et 4 lithographies de Max Ernst
1939 Médieuses Valentine Hugo Poèmes d’Eluard et 35 lithographies de Valentine Hugo
1941 Moralité du sommeil René Magritte Poèmes d’Eluard, une figure et une vignette en cul-de-lampe de Magritte
1941 Sur les pentes inférieures Pablo Picasso Poèmes d’Eluard
et portrait d’Eluard par Picasso
1942 La dernière nuit Henri Laurens Poèmes d’Eluard
et frontispice de Laurens
1943 L’honneur des poètes Recueil collectif Poèmes d’Eluard (Maurice Hervent) et de très nombreux autres poètes de la Résistance
1944 L’honneur des poètes
II. Europe
Recueil collectif Poèmes d’Eluard (Maurice Hervent ou Jean du Haut) et de très nombreux autres poètes de la Résistance
1944 Dignes de vivre Jean Fautrier Poèmes d’Eluard et illustrations de Fautrier
1944 Quelques mots rassemblés pour monsieur Dubuffet Jean Dubuffet Poème d’Eluard
et une lithographie de Dubuffet
1944 Au rendez-vous allemand Pablo Picasso Poèmes d’Eluard
et une eau-forte de Picasso
1944 A Pablo Picasso Pablo Picasso Poèmes d’Eluard déjà édités
et abondante iconographie de Picasso
1945 En avril 44 : Paris respirait encore ! Jean Hugo Poème d’Eluard illustrant 7 gouaches de Jean Hugo
1945 Doubles d’ombre André Beaudin Poèmes d’Eluard
et dessins de Beaudin
1945 Lingères légères Marcoussis Poèmes d’Eluard
et frontispice de Marcoussis
1945 Une longue réflexion amoureuse Pablo Picasso Poèmes d’Eluard
et frontispice de Picasso
1946 Souvenirs de la maison
des fous
Gérard Vulliamy Poèmes d’Eluard
et dessins de Vulliamy
1946 Le dur désir de durer Marc Chagall Poèmes d’Eluard
et 25 dessins de Chagall
1947 Objet des mots et des images Engel-Pak Poèmes d’Eluard
et lithographies d’Engel-Pak
1947 Elle se fit élever un palais Serge Revzani Poème d’Eluard
et 11 bois gravés de Revzani
1947 Le Temps déborde Dora Maar et Man Ray Poèmes d’Eluard et photographies de Dora Maar et Man Ray
1947 Corps mémorable Valentine Hugo Poèmes d’Eluard et frontispice de Valentine Hugo
1948 A l’intérieur de la vue,
8 poèmes visibles
Max Ernst Poèmes d’Eluard et 40 dessins de Max Ernst
1948 Picasso à Antibes Michel Sima Texte d’Eluard commentant des photographies de Michel Sima
1948 Perspectives Albert Flocon Poèmes d’Eluard sur 12 gravures au burin d’Albert Flocon
1948 Le bestiaire Roger Chastel Poèmes d’Eluard et 87 eaux-fortes de Chastel
1949 Jeux vagues la poupée
(projet de 1938-39,
finalisation en 1949)
Hans Bellmer Poèmes d’Eluard illustrant 14 photographies de Bellmer
1949 Léda Théodore Géricault
(fonds de l’école des Beaux-Arts)
Poèmes d’Eluard et dessins de Géricault
1949 La saison des amours J. Friedlander Poèmes d’Eluard et 13 eaux-fortes de Friedlander
1949 Grèce ma rose de raison Z. Srnitch Poèmes d’Eluard et 6 gravures sur bois de Srnitch
1950 Hommage aux martyrs et aux combattants du ghetto de Varsovie Maurice Mendjizki Poème d’Eluard et 31 dessins de Mendjizki
1951 Pouvoir tout dire Françoise Gilot Poèmes d’Eluard et 12 portraits par Françoise Gilot
1951 Le visage de la paix Pablo Picasso Poèmes d’Eluard et 29 lithographies de Picasso
1951 Grain-d’aile Jacqueline Duhème Conte d’Eluard et illustrations de J. Duhème
1951 Le phénix Valentine Hugo Poèmes d’Eluard et 18 dessins de Valentine Hugo
1952 Marines Rose Adler Poème d’Eluard et photographie de Rose Adler
1953 “Liberté” (poème de 1942)
(réédition posthume)
Fernand Léger Poème-objet d’Eluard et Léger
1953 Poésie ininterrompue II
(édition posthume)
Pablo Picasso Poèmes d’Eluard
et portrait d’Eluard par Picasso en frontispice
1956 Un poème dans chaque livre
(édition posthume)
Picasso, Arp, Beaudin, Braque, Chagall, Dominguez, Ernst, Giacometti, Hugo, Laurens, Léger, Villon, Tanguy, Masson & Miró 12 poèmes calligraphiés par Eluard et précédemment édités, illustrés par 16 planches (eaux-fortes, burins, lithographies originales) de ses amis artistes
1957 Corps mémorable
(réédition posthume)
Pablo Picasso, Jean Cocteau et Lucien Clergue Poèmes d’Eluard, couverture de Picasso, poème liminaire de Cocteau et photographies de Lucien Clergue

Bibliographie

  • Paul Eluard – Œuvres complètes, Gallimard, bibliothèque de la Pléiade, 2 tomes, 1968
  • Albert Mingelgrün – Essai sur l’évolution esthétique de Paul Eluard – Peinture et langage, L’Âge d’homme, 1977
  • Jean-Charles Gateau – Paul Eluard et la peinture surréaliste, Genève, Droz, 1982
  • Paul Eluard et ses amis peintres, catalogue de l’exposition du Centre Pompidou, 1982-1983

© Agnès Vinas

 

Mis en ligne le 12.07.2013
Dernière modification le 18.06.2016
© Lettres volées, 2010-2016

 

 

Ordinary Finds

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Another Man Ray/Paul Eluard collaboration: Facile, 1935 – a book of Eluard’s

 

Ordinary Finds

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Paul Eluard wrote a poem in homage to Man Ray: The storm of a robe

 

 

 

 

 

 

Another textile Picture started

The following pictures are from another piece i am working on using once again up-cycled materials from a charity shop, i am creating the ‘ beauty of nature’,.

This piece will be made up of different sewing skills ,textiles and techniques. i am not only sewing by hand but will also have machine stitching involved. Using layers on the flower i am trying to give the piece some depth as well as interest.

Starting with a drawing i then proceeded to use tracing paper and a pencil and traced the drawing in individual pieces, i then cut these pieces out and attached them to material with pins, the cut the sections out.

Once all the pieces were cut out i proceeded to cut out the backing of the piece measuring it so it will fit into a picture frame along the way.

Once this was done i sewed the pieces of the back ground together on backing material, using a sewing machine for a secure and neat finish. i then used the sewing machine to construct the actual flower pieces i have done layering as i went along.

Here are a few pictures of what i have completed so far. !!!!

All comments welcome and there is still more to come as i get this piece finished keep watching my posts grow . !!!!!!!!!!!!